When the reproductive period in a woman’s life ends, various natural changes occur in her body. Doctors call them all familiar term - menopause. But, of course, he does not come at once. Quite a long time passes before the complete cessation of the activity of the reproductive system. And it all starts with premenopause, which is also known as the premenopausal period. Consider the main signs of a premenopausal period, and say that a woman needs to be taken in this difficult time.
With menopause, there is a gradual decrease (extinction) of the active hormonal activity of the ovaries. This period lasts from the beginning of such a decline until the complete cessation of menstruation, and on average it takes from two to ten years.
How is the period before menopause?
Signs of premenopausal period
Some women do not pay attention to the natural changes in the body, the only thing that clearly indicates the approaching menopause - menstrual disorders. During the premenopausal period, menstruation may become completely irregular and more scarce. Typical is an increase in the interval between periods - from forty to ninety days.
If the body does not work too well, menstrual irregularities are more pronounced. Monthly become more abundant, uterine bleeding may appear.
Another classic symptom of the premenopausal period is a decrease in the amount of discharge during menstruation. Menstruations in the premenopausal period gradually become less and less pronounced, until they finally stop altogether, which indicates a transition to a new stage - the period of menopause.
Premenopause is also manifested by a natural decrease in the woman's ability to conceive. But at this stage of life it is very important not to abandon protection because the risk of unwanted pregnancy is high.
Even in women, the premenopausal period is manifested by natural fluctuations in the amount of estrogen in the blood, which can be felt:
- excessive sensitivity of the mammary glands, engorgement of the breast and exacerbations of mastopathy (if it is already present),
- disorders in sexual life, namely, a decrease in libido and the appearance of a feeling of dryness in the vagina,
In addition, many women in the period of natural attenuation of reproductive function are faced with the problem of disorders in the activity of the cardiovascular system. In particular, they can be disturbed by hot flashes, rapid heartbeat, coronary heart disease, atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, hypertension and angina. Quite often, even in response to insignificant stress, shortness of breath occurs. At occurrence of any ailments from the side of the cardiovascular system, it is important for the readers of "Popular about Health" to seek doctoral assistance.
Another premenopausal period is often accompanied by a feeling of excessive fatigue. Many women have problems with concentration, it is difficult for them to memorize new information and remember something. Quite common symptoms of such a period of life are considered violations of the full quality of sleep - it becomes superficial, insomnia occurs. Sometimes at night there are attacks of heightened anxiety, excessive sweating and hot flashes (hot flashes). In addition, during natural hormonal changes women may experience frequent headaches and migraines.
What to take in the premenopausal period?
If you suspect the development of premenopausal period, you should contact your gynecologist and undergo a complete examination of the body. After all, the symptoms of premenopause may well be some serious health problems.
After the doctor confirms the natural attenuation of the reproductive function, he will tell you which medicines and dietary supplements to take.
So, medications that usually include so-called phytoestrogens usually become drugs of choice. They are also known by the name of hormone-like substances, and their structure and effect on the body is similar to the action of natural estrogen, more precisely, one of its sub-species, estradiol. As the name implies, phytoestrogens are of plant origin. Their consumption helps:
- to improve the function of the cardiovascular system, reduce the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, as well as heart attack with stroke,
- to stabilize the activity of the central nervous system by improving adaptive abilities to stress and all sorts of loads, neutralizing problems with sleep, performance and overexcitement,
- maintain visual appeal, slowing the aging process,
- To improve the absorption of calcium, which is an excellent method of preventing osteoporosis.
As a source of phytoestrogens usually used complexes of vitamins with minerals, which are supplemented with extracts of certain plants. In particular, the doctor may recommend funds presented:
- Ladys Formula “Menopause” complex, etc.
In some cases, based on the data of the research, the doctor may insist on additional hormone intake - hormone replacement therapy. Typically, these tools are necessary in case of excessively active development of menopause, which does not have a very positive effect on women's health. Synthetic hormonal drugs are selected individually, are used only under the supervision of a physician, have a number of contraindications to use and can provoke unwanted side effects.
Features and signs of the premenopausal period
The main change is the reduction in the production of estrogen, a female sex hormone. In his youth, he regulates many important processes:
- gives stability to the menstrual cycle,
- responsible for metabolism, emotional stability,
- participates in the production of collagen responsible for the skin,
- affects the work of the brain, especially the departments responsible for attention, memory, analytical skills,
- helps to absorb calcium.
These valuable abilities are reduced in proportion to the amount of the female sex hormone. Within 4 years before the immediate onset of menopause, changes in the state of health, mood, and work of the body systems begin. They are hardly noticeable, but you need to carefully monitor yourself so as not to miss the symptoms of the premenopausal period. They differ in intensity, can appear gradually or in a complex.
The beginning of the restructuring of the body can be determined by a number of symptoms:
- The most powerful argument will be a violation of the menstrual cycle. This concerns not only the timing, but also the amount of discharge. Moreover, their absence within 2 - 3 months is not a guarantee of their complete cessation.
- Frequent malfunctions of the cardiovascular system. They are characterized by irregular pressure, palpitations, sudden spasms, shortness of breath. Symptoms appear even at low loads. It is necessary to take measures at the first signs and then carefully monitor the positive dynamics.
- Symptoms of a premenopausal period in women include breast hypersensitivity, exacerbation of mastopathy. The formation of tumors is possible, the trigger mechanism for which is the hormonal imbalance.
- There is instability of the emotional background, a decrease in concentration of attention, memory deteriorates.
- Fading sexual desire. To a large extent, this is due to discomfort in the intimate area. The amount of lubricant decreases, the walls of the vagina become dry, microcracks can occur. In such conditions, there are psychological barriers, fear of sexual intercourse.
- Premenopausal syndrome is also characterized by sleep disorders. They may be short-lived, but sometimes they become chronic. There is a kind of circle, when the intense waiting for falling asleep breaks the sleepy reflex.
- Anxiety and suspicion have a wave-like manifestation, sometimes turning into neuroses and depression. They are especially dangerous during the premenopausal period.
- PMS is also out of control, there are aggravations.
- Recurrent headaches and migraine attacks are becoming a serious problem.
- Worsening condition of the skin, hair, nails
The list of problems is really serious, but one should not forget about the impact of prophylaxis, which can significantly reduce the manifestations of unpleasant sensations. Timely help the body is in the early diagnosis of disorders and the use of vitamin complexes and drugs prescribed by a doctor.
Features of premenopause
The beginning of changes in the body is almost imperceptible, but it is important to notice them in time. The amount of time donated by nature should be used with maximum benefit. The onset of premenopause is individual, but a number of external factors also affect its timing, among which heredity plays a leading role. It depends on the rate of maturation and the onset of regular menstruation.
The time of extinction of ovarian function, habits, and neurological and endocrine disorders are approaching. In childless women, menopausal syndrome occurs much earlier. Irradiation, work in hazardous occupations and chronic diseases can also cause a shortened period of premenopause.
The reason for the failure of the menstrual cycle lies in the change in the ratio of the types of hormones. Follicle-stimulating hormone becomes larger, and estrogen and progesterone gradually decrease.
It affects the external and sexual attractiveness. The first signs of aging appear, libido decreases. There is a strong reduction in discharge or heavy bleeding for a long time. There may be significant fluctuations in body weight.
Important to remember! All changes are a normal biological process and do not need urgent medical treatment.
First of all, genitals, vessels and central nervous system, mucous membranes, skin, kidneys, liver, heart react to the beginning of hormonal changes. Symptoms appear gradually, the reactions of the psycho-emotional sphere, vasomotor disturbances are visible before all, coordination suffers. Following the skin and urogenital changes, then comes the turn of the bones and the cardiovascular system.
Therapy for premenopausal disorders
If the disturbances in the work of the body systems become pronounced and threaten to health, you will have to start taking supporting drugs. The first step should be to see a doctor. He prescribes a full examination, since it is necessary not only to clarify individual characteristics, but also to exclude some reasons. For example, heavy bleeding can be caused not by age, but by inflammation. Therefore, in the process of examination it is very important to follow all the recommendations so that the clinical picture is clear. Usually, besides a complex of blood and urine tests, the doctor prescribes an appeal to specialists. A cardiologist, an endocrinologist, a mammologist, a gynecologist should be examined and given an opinion; other specialists may be involved. You will need a blood test for hormone levels, ultrasound, ECG, cervical cytology.
Well, if the survey will have a planned medical examination. Then all visits will be free and high priority, without a long wait.
After the complete picture has developed, the doctor thinks out the most effective supportive therapy. It includes sedatives, phytoestrogens, hormone substitutes, drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, vitamin complexes.
Preparations for stabilizing hormonal levels
The main cause of violations is the hormonal shift, the task is to compensate for the missing species and reduce the excess. For this purpose, a number of herbal drugs are used. Phytoestrogens are similar to estradiol, which has a positive effect on:
- normalization of the heart and blood vessels, reduce the risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack and stroke,
- stabilization of the central nervous system, restoration of full-fledged sleep, reduction of susceptibility to external stimuli, normalization of the processes of arousal of rest and rest,
- the process of calcium absorption, which affects the structure of bone tissue, preventing the development of osteoporosis.
Most often, the doctor prescribes Chi-Klim, Remens, Klimadinon, Estrovel, Mance. They have a mild effect, do not contain steroids, do not affect the change in body weight.
If the symptoms of premenopausal syndrome are pronounced, then you have to resort to hormone replacement therapy. It is carried out under strict medical supervision with the implementation of continuous monitoring of the blood.
Attention! It is impossible to take drugs of the group of hormone therapy independently, they can provoke the development of oncological diseases.
For successful overcoming of premenopause and menopause, a positive attitude and emotional stability are important. But hormonal disruption literally undermines composure even calm and balanced women. Spontaneous mood swings, increased anxiety, unmotivated hysteria, turning into apathy, and sleep disturbances are often observed. In some cases, there are neuroses and long-term depression. Do not leave such manifestations without attention.
To support the nervous system and reduce the appearance of similar symptoms, doctors recommend herbal remedies, for example, Novo Passit, Tenoten, Grandaxin, Persen. They have a cumulative effect, so you need to tune in to the exchange rate. But they have no side effects in the form of lethargy, drowsiness. Drugs do not affect the ability to drive vehicles, the reaction rate is maintained. The use of sedatives is justified when:
- excessive sweating
- excessive fear
- heart rhythm disorder
- mood swings,
- frequent dizziness.
Sleep disturbances are dangerous, because it is in a dream that self-healing and regeneration mechanisms are triggered. Full rest is necessary for any kind of activity, so you need to pay attention to the restoration of the sleepy reflex. To do this, sedatives are also prescribed to help the body relax, relieve anxiety, which often becomes the main cause of sleep disorders. One can resort to sleeping pills only for chronic forms of insomnia, given that they provoke addiction, and if canceled, in some cases, a relapse occurs. It is better to try to do with folk remedies and meditative techniques.
Premenopause is characterized by a decrease in the ability to assimilate useful substances. Therefore, the complex support of the body includes the appointment of additional sources of vitamins. Especially there is a lack of vitamins B, E, A, D, PP, as well as calcium, magnesium. Special vitamin complexes are created taking into account age-related changes and the needs of the female body. Well compensate for the lack of substances Menopace, Femikaps, Vitatress, Alphabet, Feminal, Complivit Calcium Dz, Doppelgerts Active. Each product has its own direction, but they have a complex effect, providing the necessary minerals, vitamins, micro and macro elements.
You should know! It is not only a shortage that is dangerous, but also an overabundance of substances; therefore, they begin taking vitamins only as prescribed by a doctor.
Against the background of global changes, chronic diseases that are in remission are activated. Sharp exacerbations are superimposed on premenopausal syndrome, increasing the manifestations of the disease. In order to prevent such phenomena or mitigate already beginning processes, one should regularly visit the attending physician, precisely follow its prescriptions, adhere to the dosage and time of administration of prescribed medications.
The main signs of pre-menopausal changes
It should be noted that not every woman is acutely aware of the approach of menopause. Each organism is individual, and its reactions to any internal vibrations are also different. To find out whether the symptoms relate to the beginning of the period of menopause, you can take the test for menopause.
However, in medical practice the following symptoms are distinguished, which differ the premenopausal period
- One of the most significant external manifestations is the change in the nature of menstruation. If before they were regular, then now there may be characteristic failures in cycles. The essence of discharge during menopause may also change, they may sometimes become more scarce, then again take on the usual character. For preklimaksa characterized by the persistence of bleeding, but there is a tendency to stop it.
- One of the most pronounced and most dangerous manifestations that mark this syndrome is the malfunction of the heart and blood vessels. These include the occurrence of hot flashes, heart palpitations, the development of coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, angina pectoris, the diagnosis of frequent attacks of high blood pressure. Нередко даже при малейших нагрузках и эмоциональном напряжении возникает одышка.It is when all these signs of trouble are just emerging, that timely treatment should be initiated and the result achieved should be supported.
- Also, there is sometimes excessive sensitivity of the mammary glands, mastopathy is exacerbated, if such a disease already exists. It should be borne in mind that many tumor diseases in this area are often hormone-dependent. Therefore, with the onset of menostasis, the number of oncological diseases sharply increases. And breast cancer is the leader among all types of oncology.
- There may be fatigue, difficulty concentrating, weakened memory.
- Against the background of a changing hormonal background, there may be difficulties in sex during menopause. Reducing the concentration of estrogen can significantly reduce libido, provoke discomfort during intimate relationships. Find out what women use gels and creams to moisturize intimate areas.
- Do not bypass this syndrome and emotional state. Sometimes even the most balanced women begin to notice for themselves heightened emotionality, unjustified flashes of anger, loss of interest in previously favorite activities and things. This is easily explained by the fact that hormonal changes are invariably associated with the work of the central nervous system.
- The premenopausal period may be accompanied by the appearance of sleep disorders. There are signs of insomnia, sleep becomes shallow, sometimes there are hot flashes during menopause, sweating, anxiety. These phenomena appear sporadically, but may already be the first "bells" of the coming deterioration of the situation.
- Under the influence of hormonal adjustment, the manifestation of PMS may worsen, especially this problem will be exacerbated in those women who regularly suffer from this ailment.
- In the premenopausal period, episodes of headaches and migraines often increase.
Prevention of predclimax
Premenopausal prophylaxis may play a predominant role even before treatment. After all, the symptoms of trouble are not so pronounced, so there is time to influence their dynamics in more loyal and safe ways.
Premenopausal syndrome requires responsible preparation for it. Yes, there are hereditary factors, which are very difficult to influence. If all the representatives of the weaker sex in the family endured the arrival of menopause, then there is a certain risk of repeating this path. However, do not blame everything on the fateful coincidence. The development of the pathological menopause is influenced by the lifestyle that accompanied the woman throughout her life up to the entry into premenopause. Therefore, it is necessary to begin preparations for the offensive of this stage with the introduction of adjustments in this direction. Ideally, of course, a healthy lifestyle should remain a faithful companion from childhood, but, as a rule, as long as a person is healthy, he is wasting his reserves of his health, and then trying to turn the accomplished changes back. However, it is never too late to change circumstances towards positive dynamics.
One of the most important factors in the safe development of the scenario is the observance of a balanced work and rest schedule. There is a clear relationship between causes and effects. As an example: systematic lack of sleep causes a feeling of depression, provokes bouts of irritability, as a result, pressure rises, anxiety arises for their health, suspiciousness. And this whole chain of negative dynamics is complicated by the hormonal “swings” that begin at this time. Therefore, for the normal functioning of all body systems, it is very important to have a good rest.
Do not belittle the importance of physical activity. Over the years, metabolic processes are slowed down, stagnant processes are formed in the body, muscle tone decreases, significantly affecting body shape and attractive body appearance. To counter these unpleasant manifestations, motor activity should be included in your life. This will not only help prolong vigor and external beauty, but will also serve as a preventative measure for cardiovascular diseases and weight gain.
A balanced diet can also be an excellent help at the stage when menopausal syndrome begins to manifest itself. Regular consumption of plant foods, lean meats, sea fish, dairy products - that is the basis of a healthy diet. To improve your well-being, you should reduce the consumption of sugar, salt, fatty and fried foods, “bad” carbohydrates.
Reception of additional sources of vitamins and microelements will be justified in order to maintain the activity and resistance of the organism to various negative factors.
Control of the psycho-emotional state is also an equally important factor. After all, the premenopausal period is characterized by a large number of vase-vegetative symptoms, the formation of which is inseparably linked with the activity of the vegetative nervous system. Therefore, emotional well-being helps to support the work of the central nervous system and slows down the development of adverse trends. To achieve a positive attitude, one should protect oneself as much as possible from stress, emotional and physical overwork, if this is not possible, then try to change one's attitude to the events and, possibly, resort to medical support of the nervous system.
Having a full sexual life in premenopause has a positive effect on the general condition. Sexual energy has a positive effect on the production of hormones, the number of which has tended to decrease. In addition, blood circulation in the pelvic organs is improved, congestive processes are eliminated, and emotional manifestations are stabilized.
In order to prevent a sharp reduction in the level of estrogen, they turn to pharmaceutical preparations containing phytoestrogens.
Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal hormone-like substances that are similar in structure to one of the subspecies of natural estrogen - estradiol.
Acceptance of plant estrogen has a positive effect on:
- The activity of the cardiovascular system. Phytohormones strengthen the walls of blood vessels, increase their elasticity, provide good nutrition to the myocardium, prevent the development of atherosclerosis, thereby helping to avoid the development of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and prevent heart attacks and strokes,
- The work of the central nervous system. Estrogens enhance the adaptive ability of the central nervous system to various stressful situations, mental and emotional stress. In addition, they help regulate the interaction of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, allowing you to streamline the change in the processes of activity and rest. Due to this, sleep is normalized, working capacity increases, which is replaced by the natural onset of fatigue after the completion of labor-intensive processes, over-stimulation is prevented, which prevents a person from relaxing and fully relaxing,
- Appearance attractive. The action of natural estrogen is not only aimed at eliminating internal ailments, but also at maintaining the natural beauty of women. The decrease in the production of natural hormones leads to the start of the aging process: the condition of the skin, hair, nails is deteriorating, the male body shape is being rearranged, and overweight appears. Acceptance of phytoestrogens helps to counter the occurrence of these manifestations and push them to a later date.
- The absorption of calcium. Phytoestrogens in combination with vitamin D help the full absorption of this trace element from food and vitamin-mineral complexes, providing opposition to the development of the disease characteristic of this time - osteoporosis, manifested in increased bone fragility.
As a source of phytoestrogens, most often vitamin and mineral preparations are used, supplemented with these plant substances. An example of such complexes can serve:
Hormone replacement therapy can be justified only if the syndrome develops too rapidly, and hormonal disruptions are extremely adversely affected by the health of the woman. In this case, the delay can be dangerous, and therapy with phytoestrogens becomes not very effective.
It is important to remember that HRT is an extreme measure, the use of which should be limited in time, and treatment should be under the strict supervision of a specialist. Unfortunately, long-term treatment with hormonal drugs causes an increased risk of cancer, for example, various types of cancer of the female genital organs and the mammary glands.
Preklimaks - an important preparatory stage of the restructuring of the female body. And although this phenomenon is exciting and, moreover, it is often accompanied by negative symptoms, it is important to consider it not only from a negative angle, but also from the side of opening opportunities. As a rule, by this time, children no longer require as much attention as before, women have time to take care of themselves and arrange their own leisure time, her sexuality is flourishing, and there is no need to worry about the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy. Menopause is not the end of life, but a phenomenon envisioned by nature itself, the course of which largely depends on the right attitude and the preventive measures taken.
What is premenopause and when does it start
The premenopausal period (premenopause) is the initial stage of menopause, during which changes in the woman's body occur due to adaptation to a permanent decrease in the level of hormones secreted by the ovaries. It lasts about 2 years and ends with the last menstruation. Every woman after 40-45 years old begins to notice the first symptoms of the premenopausal stage.
The onset of menopause is accompanied by mood swings, high blood pressure, hot flashes, and other symptoms that may persist throughout menopause. They manifest themselves individually and directly depend on the way of life and processes in the body responsible for general health.
Diagnosis of premenopause is possible up to 40 years (about 3%), and after 55 (about 20%), and is not always a sign of pathological conditions. Often, such atypicality indicates only the genetic characteristics of a woman.
Signs of menopause
Premenopausal period is difficult not to notice. A number of changes in the body, which are manifested at the physiological and mental level, are evident both for the woman herself and for those around her. The main symptoms of premenopause are:
- Premenstrual syndrome is more pronounced: pulling pain in the lower abdomen, discomfort in the chest, irritability, mood swings, uncontrolled appetite and headaches become companions of this period. If all these manifestations were familiar to the woman before, then with an early menopause, the onset of menses becomes even more painful.
- Violations of the menstrual cycle: it becomes longer, and bleeding - much poorer. On average, menstrual flow with menopause comes every 2 months.
- Hot flashes - a sudden increase in body temperature. The skin of the face and neckline reddens, shortness of breath appears, darkens in the eyes. As soon as the attack stops, sweating rises. The number of hot flashes per day determines the difficulty of the climacteric syndrome: up to 5 - mild, up to 15 - moderate, up to 30 - severe.
- Difficulties in controlling emotions is one of the most frequent symptoms of a woman's predlimax state. Hormonal alterations affect the nervous system. Disruption of sleep and wakefulness and rapid fatigue result in irritability. Especially often overcomes anger that is difficult to cope. Complicating the situation is that others often take it for whims and nasty character. Accompanied by such negative emotions headache. Often, a woman gets depressed.
- Due to the reduction of secreted mucous secretions, dryness in the vagina appears, which negatively affects the sensations during sexual intercourse. Also, sexual desire is significantly dulled, in connection with which problems may arise in relationships with men. The secretions themselves become poorer and can change their quality — consistency, color, smell. Normal are considered mucous discharge without smell. In all other cases, you need to contact a specialist.
- Disruption of hormonal function leads to a deterioration of brain activity. Memory is dulled, it is more difficult to memorize not only new information, but also to recall facts from the past. Difficulties with concentration. It becomes difficult for a woman to do the same thing for a long time.
- A manifestation of the initial stage of menopause in a woman is the malfunction of the cardiovascular system. Increased pressure with all the ensuing consequences - a headache, rapid heartbeat, a burning sensation in the chest - makes itself felt at this age.
- Breast sensitivity is not a frequent, but common occurrence in the initial stage of menopause. In conjunction with abundant blood secretions may indicate the initial stage of development of tumors. Breast cancer is a disease that most women get over 40. It is very important to regularly visit doctors and undergo examinations of the genital organs at this age.
Not all women show signs of premenopausa with the same intensity. Factors that influence the flow of pre-climax:
- genetic factor - those representatives of the weaker sex who have inherited good health, and whose mothers endured this stage relatively easily, very likely will not face serious problems either,
- Lifestyle - smoking, alcohol, stress, unhealthy diet, hard physical or mental work aggravate the state during this period. A healthy diet, physical activity, the absence of bad habits and a calm psycho-emotional state facilitate menopause syndrome,
- diseases of any organs, and first of all - of the reproductive system: during this period their course is aggravated, the probability of complications increases.
The body of a woman in the premenopausal period
The premenopausal period is the time when the level of follicle-stimulating hormone in the blood rises. This process is combined with a decrease in the level of estradiol, one of the main female sex hormones.
The ovaries continue to function, producing estrogen and progesterone, but their activity decreases. Therefore, normal menstruation with preceding ovulation occur, and therefore, it is still possible to get pregnant during premenopause. Carrying a child at this age rarely occurs without complications. It is strongly recommended not to forget about reliable contraception, which must be prescribed by a doctor.
The constant decrease of female hormones in the limit of maximal state affects the following systems of the body most of all:
- Sexual. The quality and quantity of secretions change, the microflora of the genital organs becomes more susceptible to infectious diseases. Changes relate to the menstrual cycle - menstruation becomes less, occur less frequently. Also frequent are complaints of sensitivity and hardening of the mammary glands in menopause, painful lumps are sometimes felt. In women with mastopathy, the disease takes on a special form at this time. Hormone therapy and constant monitoring of genital health by a competent specialist is what will help to avoid complications.
- Cardiovascular. Lack of estrogen leads to the fragility of the walls of blood vessels, which adversely affects the blood circulation and blood pressure. All women over 40 are advised to eat foods containing healthy polysaturated fats to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and increase their elasticity.
- Urinary-sexual. The hormones of the estrogen group ensure the normal functioning of the bladder and the muscle tone of the pelvis. Accordingly, their reduction provokes such pathological conditions as urinary incontinence, discomfort during urination, and cystitis. In addition to menopause, the causes of these diseases can be problems of the functioning of the endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Special exercises, such as Kegel gymnastics or imbilding, help to solve these problems well.
- Digestive: metabolism slows down significantly. This leads to an increase in blood cholesterol, swelling, constipation, flatulence and a rapid set of excess weight. Stomach pain and nausea - the reaction of the digestive system to high blood pressure. A healthy balanced diet and avoiding food debris will help to avoid these difficulties.
- Bone. Bone tissue becomes more fragile, increases the likelihood of fractures due to mechanical injuries. Кроме того, ухудшается состояние кожи и волос. В рационе женщины в период климактерия обязательно должны быть продукты, богатые кальцием. Рекомендуется также принимать витаминные комплексы, содержащие необходимые микроэлементы.
- Нервную. Нестабильность эмоционального состояния тоже спровоцирована гормональными скачками.
In addition to these changes, all chronic diseases may worsen in women during premenopause. However, it must be remembered that climax is a natural and gradual process. The body is able to adapt to changes, and with proper prevention, menopausal syndrome can occur without problems at all.
What is climax?
The term "menopause" itself came into our use from the Greek word "klimas", which means the ladder. In physiology, it refers to the transition to an age when an adult individual becomes non-reproductive. Such a period when the reproductive system stops working is the norm for all mammals. In Internet articles on this topic, the term menopause is also used in relation to women, but this designation is not entirely correct, since it is more correct to refer to menopause as the period when monthly alterations disappear.
To understand the physiology of menopause, you need to understand the work of the reproductive system in women. At about 12 years old, the girl begins her period. The figure is individual and can vary from 9 to 15 years. The onset of menstruation means that the pituitary and hypothalamus of the brain actively produce hormones that affect the ovaries. Under the action of the hormone in the ovaries, the follicle begins to mature, from which the egg cell leaves at the appointed time. If the egg cell after maturation is not fertilized, it collapses and goes out naturally. At the same time, endometrial cells lining the surface of the uterus also break down and exit. The process is accompanied by a violation of blood vessels, so the discharge is accompanied by blood loss. Meanwhile, the pituitary gland again gives a signal to the ovaries to begin the development of a new follicle. This description of the menstrual cycle is rather exaggerated, but gives a sufficient understanding of the physiology and sequence of the process.
Closer to the age of forty (the figure is again an individual), the ovary stops responding to the hormonal signals of the brain. In addition, the number of full-fledged follicles by this age is significantly reduced, because for the entire period of life, women have an average of about 500 menses, and accordingly about 500 maturation of the egg. By this period, there are already few quality reproductive structures left in the ovaries, the follicles do not mature, and, accordingly, do not give a signal-response to the brain. The pre-menopausal period begins, the menstrual cycle fails. For several years, hormone production is significantly reduced, and menstruation stops completely. This stage is called climax, the transition to a new level. The process is not always easy and fast, some manifest pain syndrome, others find it difficult to understand this period psychologically (this is where the ladder analogy comes from, where in order to climb higher, it is necessary to overcome the high step).
Types of transition
By the time of occurrence in women menopause is divided into several species. This division is rather arbitrary, because the onset of a new phase depends not only on the biological age, but also on heredity, health status, living and working conditions.
There are such types of menopause:
- early - comes to the fortieth anniversary of the woman. Such a process is considered a pathology and requires a gynecological examination. The pathology can be caused by constant stress, serious illness of the body, and surgeries.
- premenopausal period - up to 45 years. The menstrual cycle may be regular, but the body is already preparing for a new stage.
- climacteric at the age of up to 52 years, hormonal adjustment of the female body occurs, the reproductive functions of the body are closed.
- late menopause - begins after the specified 52 years. Unlike early, it is not considered a pathology, on the contrary, it is considered an indicator of the excellent body work.
By the presence of percolation, each of the species can be divided into pathological or normal (respectively with or without deviations). In order to react in time to possible violations, it is necessary to closely monitor the health, and if necessary, consult with your doctor.
Climax is a natural, natural process. for which the woman should be ready. And like any natural process, it does not occur instantly. The period foreshadowing the onset of menopause begins several years before the end of menstruation. At this time, the menstrual cycle is still regular and a woman can even become pregnant. True, such a pregnancy will require careful medical supervision.
During this period, the production of estrogen, which is vital for a normal cycle, is already decreasing. Estrogen deficiency leads to:
- violation of cyclical menstruation,
- weight gain
- deterioration of tissue elasticity,
- reduction of sexual desire
- deterioration of emotional stamina.
It can also disrupt the taste buds, increases the fragility of bone tissue, it is difficult for a woman to control her emotions. All these signs appear on average from one to three years, and warn of an impending transition. In turn, this will allow a woman to prepare for the upcoming big changes.
In addition to the general signs of a lack of estrogen, predclimax is characterized by the following features:
- change in monthly rhythm. If at a mature age the monthly cycle in a healthy woman is regular, and ranges from 21 to 35 days, then in this period the number of days of the cycle and the duration of each phase change. The duration of critical days and the amount of discharge also become unstable - their duration and size varies from cycle to cycle.
- malfunction of the cardiovascular system. As a rule, rapid heartbeat is observed, atherosclerosis and angina pectoris are possible, and seizures with arterial pressure are frequent.
- significantly increases the risk of breast cancer. The formation of tumors in the mammary gland is a hormone-dependent process. Considering that at this time hormonal imbalance begins, the probability of developing the disease increases significantly. If mastopathy has already taken place, then it is more likely that it will also resume. The breast as a whole becomes more sensitive.
- memory functions are impaired, ability to concentrate, a woman is hard for a long time to keep attention even on important things.
- during intercourse, discomfort is experienced. The decrease in estrogen level affects not only sexual desires, but also libido itself during intercourse.
- hormones in the body affect all moments of life, including the central nervous system. A woman, even the most balanced, is difficult to control emotions. Particularly frequent manifestations of anger. Because of the disruption of the nervous system, insomnia or shallow, sensitive sleep may develop. It is at such moments that a systematic headache also begins.
- the female body begins to respond more acutely to premenstrual syndrome. The situation is especially complicated when it manifested itself even with the established cycle.
- the so-called tides. The woman feels a sharp rush of heat, her cheeks turn pink for a while. And after the tide is over, there is a sharp feeling of sweating. For the day of such manifestations of the syndrome can be from one to 30.
If the manifestation of these symptoms pass with the identified pathologies, then they speak about climacteric syndrome, which requires obligatory work with a doctor.
Menopausal syndrome can begin long before the onset of menopause, respectively, any pathology can affect the body for several years. The situation is complicated if an adult woman has psychological problems that can eventually develop into neuroses. The deterioration of health and increasing misunderstanding in communicating with loved ones leads to various consequences.
Menopausal syndrome can last for each woman in different ways, often stretching for a year or more. The duration of the stage depends on many factors - heredity, health, stress resistance, socio-cultural relationships, preventive measures taken.
In critical situations of development of physiological pathologies and psychological disorders, the help of a specialist is necessary.
Help with exacerbations
Consultations with a physician should begin immediately, as soon as the monthly cycle began to be disturbed, or the woman felt the first surge or sweating gain. Contact the medical office should also be if:
- seals were found in the mammary gland (and every woman should regularly conduct breast self-examination),
- blood pressure fluctuates outside the norm,
- there are violations with the side of the urinary-genital system.
While these signs should cause anxiety in an adult woman, copious periods are not a reason to worry. Exceptions are only cases that are dangerous by the development of anemia, when it is necessary to call an ambulance.
For proper treatment of the condition, it is necessary to undergo examinations not only at the gynecologist, but also at the therapist, neuropathologist, and in some cases even at the endocrinologist. In most cases, treatment of climacteric syndrome is complex and involves the use of medical hormonal preparations, and psychotherapeutic courses are also conducted.
The pre-climax condition is treated symptomatically. For example, antipsychotics and bromides are used to fight neuroses, sedatives are prescribed for insomnia, and hormone deficiencies are treated with hormone therapy.
Hormone therapy prescribed exclusively to mentally healthy people. Estrogen replacement therapy is actively used, during which symptoms of a lack of female sex hormone are removed (sweating, discomfort in the vagina). Estrogen is also used to prevent disorders of the cardiovascular system, osteoporosis.
Also carry out the normalization of the body using gestagens. Progestogens are capable of reducing the amplitudes of emotional fluctuations, but the woman's pre-climax states, whose symptoms speak of mental disorders, on the contrary, may increase. Therefore, it is possible to prescribe progestogens only after certain psychological studies.
Most often appointed complex estrogen-progestin therapy. However, failure to comply with the regimen of drugs can stretch the entire menopausal period even longer. The dosage prescribed by the physician should be strictly observed.
Mental disorders caused by the transition to a new physiological level, are treated with tranquilizers, nootropics and antidepressants. Psychotherapeutic sessions are mandatory. A course of hormonal and psychotropic drugs can be combined.
The basic treatment procedures are influenced by the individual indicators of each woman - manifested symptoms, the presence of hormonal or mental disorders, the transition period. In general, the forecasts of competent treatment are very favorable. With regular visits to the doctor, the woman will undergo this natural process faster and more comfortable for herself and others.
Climacteric syndrome in its acute manifestation can be warned. The best prophylactic in this situation is considered a healthy lifestyle - moderate exercise, proper nutrition, adequate sleep.
The premenopausal period goes faster, if you get rid of nicotine addiction, stop drinking alcohol. It is also recommended to do regular exercises in the morning, and walks with jogging or swimming. It is useful to take a contrast shower.
Proper nutrition includes taking vitamins. Vitamins help to normalize the work of the cardiovascular system, strengthen the walls of blood vessels. Associated complex of minerals is also useful for the prevention of menopausal syndrome. The use of vitamins B, C, E reduces the acute symptoms of the period.
When to be ready
How many years to begin to take care of women's health, to reduce the manifestations of pre-menopause? The question is not entirely correct. After all, every girl, girl, woman should take care of their own health since early childhood.
At the same time it is necessary to prepare for this stage of your life after 40 (do not forget that there is such a thing as early menopause). A woman should know the main signs and in time determine the beginning transitional stage. Attention to your health and timely visits to the gynecologist will allow you to get through this natural process quickly and as comfortably as possible for a woman.
With the onset of menopause, the level of female sex hormones estrogen produced by the ovaries, gradually decreases to a minimum, and then remains consistently low until the end of life.
There are 3 stages of menopause:
- Premenopause - the beginning of hormonal adjustment, in which the level of estrogen begins to decline, menstruation becomes irregular. The probability of conception decreases.
- Menopause is the period of 12 months from the start of the last menstruation. If in the previous period a woman may still doubt the reason for the failure of the menstrual cycle, then the absence of menstruation during the year is an accurate sign of the onset of menopause.
- Postmenopause - the period after the end of menopause is about 3-5 years. The level of estrogen reaches a minimum.
Types of climax and age of their occurrence
Symptoms of climax in women depend on age. Treatment is also prescribed in accordance with the age of menopause, which depends on the characteristics of physiology, general health, conditions and lifestyle. There are several types of menopause:
- premature (after 30 and up to 40 years),
- early (from 41 years to 45 years),
- timely, considered normal (45-55 years),
- late (after 55 years).
Premature and late menopause usually are pathological. After examination and clarification of the causes of deviations from the norm, treatment is prescribed. With timely onset of menopause, in some cases only relief of the accompanying symptoms is required.
Causes and effects of premature menopause
The onset of menopause at an early age is possible for several reasons. First of all, it is associated with diseases of the ovaries, their removal or treatment with hormonal drugs. Sometimes premature menopause is caused by congenital genetic disorders. When this happens insufficient production of eggs. This pathology is inherited.
One of the reasons is too early puberty girls. The usual age of the onset of the first menstruation is 13-14 years. But sometimes periods appear as early as 10-11 years.
Menopause occurs too early in those who have had a thyroid disease, reproductive organs, immune system, liver. Radiotherapy in the treatment of tumors and chemotherapy will provoke the onset of menopause.
An unhealthy lifestyle and bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse, drug addiction) also contribute to the emergence of early menopause. The provoking factor is obesity, as well as the fascination with diets, long-term starvation.
The onset of early menopause is usually associated with hormonal disorders in the body. Reducing the level of female sex hormones leads to infertility and early aging. In addition, hormonal disorders increase the risk of tumors of the mammary glands, reproductive organs. Also increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. An imbalance of hormones leads to diseases of the thyroid gland, the work of the urogenital system is disturbed. Early menopause causes neurosis, depression.
When the first suspicions of a decrease in the sexual activity of the body appear, it is necessary to consult a doctor. In case of doubts about the cause of the menstrual cycle, an FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) test is done. When menopause, its level rises and remains constantly high. If the disturbances are temporary, the level of this hormone fluctuates.
Causes and complications of late menopause
As a rule, the factor of the onset of late menopause is heredity. If it does not occur before the age of 55, and there are no health problems, late menopause plays only a positive role. Longer preserved normal composition of bone and muscle tissue. Fewer problems with the work of the heart, blood vessels, brain.
However, in some cases, the cause of late menopause can be a serious gynecological disease or treatment with chemotherapy and radiation. In this case, the woman should always be under the supervision of a physician, since exacerbation or recurrence of the diseases that caused the delay of menopause is possible. Irregular onset of bleeding of varying intensity sometimes masks the symptoms of diseases, including malignant tumors.
Symptoms of menopause
There are a number of signs by which one can determine that menopause has come.
Hot flushes are periodic attacks of sudden onset accompanied by a sensation of heat, as well as blood flow to the face. При этом женщина сильно потеет. Через несколько минут наступает состояние озноба. Такие приливы могут длиться годами, появляться в день по 20-50 раз. В таком случае врач подскажет, как уменьшить их количество, облегчить симптомы.
Headaches, dizziness, usually appearing in the morning. A woman is forced to abandon the usual affairs, quickly tired. She feels causeless anxiety, becomes irritable.
Sleep disturbance Tides that occur during the day and at night wake a woman. After that, it is difficult for her to sleep Insomnia occurs not only because of the tides. The cause of sleep disorders may be neurosis, arising from the deterioration of the nervous system and brain. The inability to sleep properly deprives of strength and causes even greater anxiety and irritation.
Frequent mood swings. The woman becomes touchy, tearful. Cheerful mood is sharply replaced by irritability and bitterness.
Lump in the throat. The reaction of the autonomic nervous system, in which there is a feeling of interference in the throat. There is a need to make swallowing movements. The woman while not experiencing pain or any discomfort. This condition usually goes away on its own. However, if the symptom does not disappear within a few months, pain appears, then it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist. Similar sensations occur in diseases of the thyroid gland.
Memory loss During this period, most women complain of "sclerosis", absent-mindedness, inability to concentrate.
Vaginal dryness. The symptom is usually accompanied by itching, is the cause of painful sensations during sexual intercourse. It occurs as a result of changes in the structure of the mucous membrane of the vagina under the influence of hormones. At the same time there is also a decrease in sexual desire.
Violation of the urinary organs. Violation of the composition of the vaginal environment makes the urogenital system more vulnerable to infection. Often there are diseases of the kidneys, bladder, inflammatory diseases of the ovaries, uterus. The weakening of muscle tone leads to urinary incontinence.
Increased blood pressure, heart palpitations. This suggests changes in the structure of blood vessels and in the heart muscle. The risk of heart disease in women increases significantly.
Joint diseases, brittle bones. This indicates a lack of calcium. With the onset of menopause in a woman, the absorption of nutrients is deteriorating. Insufficient calcium intake weakens bones. In addition, the nails become brittle, hair loss and deterioration of their structure are observed. Tooth enamel also becomes thinner, caries occurs more often.
Diagnosis of menopause. How to relieve symptoms
With the appearance of such signs as menstrual dysfunction, a decrease or increase in the volume of discharge, a sharp change in body weight and other unexpected symptoms, a woman should always consult a physician: a gynecologist, an endocrinologist, a mammologist. Examination using ultrasound, X-rays, as well as a biochemical blood test for hormones and tumor markers will allow time to detect serious diseases that must be urgently treated.
If a woman is healthy, the unpleasant symptoms are associated with climacteric abnormalities, then she will be prescribed therapy for eliminating insomnia, taking sedatives and vitamins. Preparations containing calcium and silicon will help prevent osteoporosis. Apply funds to enhance blood circulation, eliminate high blood pressure.
The most effective method of getting rid of hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause is hormone therapy. Sometimes it is enough to choose the appropriate hormonal contraceptives with the help of a doctor. Candles containing hormonal preparations, special patches, intrauterine devices are also used. With these tools, the level of estrogen rises, which makes it possible to slow the onset of climacteric changes. Hormone replacement therapy is carried out for at least 1-2 years. Preventing osteoporosis sometimes requires its use for several years after menopause.
Caution: Any hormones should be taken as directed by the physician. Excess estrogen leads to weight gain, varicose veins in the legs, breast diseases, the appearance of uterine fibroids, and other serious health problems.
For a mild reduction of the symptoms of menopause, non-hormonal products based on herbal ingredients are used, for example, ESTROVEL® capsules - a complex of phytoestrogens, vitamins and trace elements, whose components act on the main manifestations of menopause.
Signs of menopause
This period is inevitable in the life of a woman, only it comes at different ages. Climax has its own signs, some do not notice them, and in others life becomes a nightmare. There are problems in relationships, mood swings, unpleasant situations at work and at home. Knowing the symptoms of menopause, you can prepare and alleviate the condition at this time.
Signs of menopausal women
Approaching the age of women to fifty different hormonal changes. At this time, estrogen ceases to be produced, which is necessary for the work of the whole organism. The physiological aging process begins. The possibility of becoming pregnant is being lost: the childbearing functions cease. Manifestations of menopause in women begin about 45 years. For women in rural areas, they may appear later. The end of the period is about 55 years, but it occurs in 68 years. Special symptoms of menopause:
- cessation of menstruation,
- hot flashes
- dry vaginal mucosa.
Women do not always know that the pre-menopausal period is approaching, especially when it comes unexpectedly early. This is due to the fact that the initial signs of menopause are similar to the manifestations of other diseases. There may be such ambiguous symptoms of menopause:
- very frequent headaches,
- aching joints
- breaking stool
- pressure increase
- depressed state
- urination disorder,
- heaviness in the head,
When and how does menopause begin
How does menopause come? This event of women's life occurs in three stages and lasts from a month to several years. The first - premenopausal period - begins when a woman is about forty years old, and ends with the last menstruation. Since each organism is individual, processes may occur at an earlier or later age. Sometimes menopause occurs artificially after surgery to remove the ovaries.
During the pre-climax stage, the function of the production of oocytes is extinguished. It begins a year before the end of the month. The first signs of perimenopause are the instability of the menstrual flow, the appearance of pain in the breasts, nipples. In the pre-menopausal period, women experience nervousness and discomfort due to the manifestation of these symptoms, because they do not always understand their causes.
How does menopause manifest in premenopausal women?
A characteristic feature of this stage is the failure of the menstrual cycle. During premenopause, the duration increases, the interval between menstruations changes. Allocations become uneven: from abundant to miserable. Such unpredictable manifestations of the work of the female body occur with changes in the nervous system, accompanied by breakdowns. The probability of conception decreases. On examination, a gynecologist can determine menopause based on the following criteria:
- pain on palpation of the breast,
- breast enlargement
- appearance of myoma formations.
Signs of menopause in the middle of menopause
The second stage of premenopause, menopause, is the shortest in duration. It begins one year after the last menstrual period. Further, perimenopause is the third period, which happens after 45 years. How long will it last? Everything is very individual, the minimum period is 2 years. The most unpleasant sign of this time is the tides. Waves of heat occur unexpectedly, causing inconvenience, especially if manifested in a public place. Often happen at night. Tides are accompanied by:
- reddening of the skin
- excessive sweating,
- temperature increase
- changing fever chills.
Often this period of life becomes the most difficult. In addition to hot flashes, there are other symptoms of menopause in women after 45 years. Among them:
- feeling weak
- pressure fluctuations
- lack of air,
- lower back pain, lower abdomen,
- changes in taste,
- pain during sex due to dryness in the vagina,
- decrease or increase in sexual desire.
Women during menopause are often left alone with their problems, considering this process natural and natural. Observing their climacteric signs, worrying them hard, they do not rush to get help from the doctors, but in vain. There is a huge amount of drugs:
- reduce the occurrence and frequency of hot flashes,
- compensating for estrogen deficiency,
- regulating pressure
- stabilizing calcium metabolism,
- neutralizing unpleasant signs.
What are the symptoms of menopause in postmenopausal women?
When a woman turns 65, the last menopausal stage begins in her life. This age may still be accompanied by tides. Urination problems are becoming more and more frequent - weak bladder muscle tone leads to incontinence. Due to the leaching of calcium from the body increases the risk of osteoporosis. Bones become brittle, fractures occur. In addition, the following signs of menopause are possible:
- weight gain
- reduced genital tonus,
- dry vaginal mucosa,
Signs of early menopause in women
There are situations when menopausal symptoms appear at the age of about 35 years. Early offensive signals a violation in the female body. Its causes may be:
- damage or removal of the ovaries,
- depletion of follicles stored at the genetic level
- chemotherapy treatment,
- ovarian tumors,
- hormonal disruptions in the body.
Woman of childbearing age to endure the onset of the menopausal period is difficult from a psychological point of view, especially if she does not have children. The situation causes severe depression, family problems. At this time, the following symptoms are observed during menopause in women:
- violation of menstruation: delay, discharge abundant or scarce, increase in period, complete cessation,
- a sharp expansion of blood vessels causes hot flashes, sensations of heat,
- mood swings
- skin aging,
- weight gain
- sweating at night
- temperature rise,
- pain during sex
- trouble sleeping
The first symptoms of menopause
The first warning signals warning a woman about approaching this period in her life depend on the characteristics of the organism. What are the symptoms of menopause in women:
- failures in the menstrual cycle
- shortness of breath, shortness of breath,
- pressure increase
- trembling or cramping in limbs, their short numbness,
- goose bumps on the skin,
- muscle and joint pain
- sudden changes in mood
- feeling of "lump" in the throat,
- anxiety, irritability, tension, fatigue,
- depressed state
- uncollectibility, forgetfulness,
- dry eyes, mouth, perineum,
- frequent urination,
- decrease in sexual desire,
- weight gain
- the appearance of deep wrinkles,
- hair loss or, on the contrary, the appearance of excess vegetation,
What kind of first messengers of menopause, of the above symptoms, will appear in a woman in a particular case, it is difficult to say. It all depends on the individual characteristics of her body, age, and the type of reaction to the appearance of a new stage in her life. So, allocate:
- Passive attitude to change. It is most often characteristic of women in rural areas, who take menopause as an inevitable phenomenon.
- Neurotic reaction. It is noted in 8–15% of women whose body actively fights the aging process, provoking the appearance of neuropsychiatric symptoms.
- Hyperactive reaction. It is characterized by acute rejection of woman changes. She is trying to ignore the signs of menopause, living a normal life, controlling her emotions.
- Adequate attitude when a woman adapts to hormonal and other changes.
Important! From how this new stage is perceived in the life of a woman to herself, the severity of the signs that appear. To reduce the severity of symptoms, one should adequately perceive their appearance.
There is a misconception that the ability to conceive disappears with the first symptoms of premenopause. At this time, only the restructuring begins, the ovaries continue to perform their function, ovulation also occurs, the uterus is ready to receive the fertilized cell. Therefore, to relax and convince yourself that unplanned pregnancy is no longer threatened, too early. Moreover, if a woman becomes pregnant, it is fraught with serious violations in the development of the fetus and threatens the health of the woman herself. There are cases when completely healthy children were born, but it is better to try to avoid such situations.
Of particular importance is the correctly chosen contraceptive. Peculiarities of premenopause dictate their conditions. Age-related changes in the mucous membrane of the uterus and cervix do not favor the use of the IUD. Its presence can provoke uncontrolled proliferation of the endometrium, or ingrowth of the spiral. Inconvenient use of condoms due to increased vaginal dryness.
In the period after 45 years should pay attention to hormonal contraceptives. Modern developments have reduced the amount of hormones to a minimum, eliminating most side effects.
“I was advised by the gynecologist to take natural remedies. They chose the climastyle — it helped me with the tides. It’s such a nightmare that sometimes you don’t want to go to work even when you’ve started. then the internal energy reappeared. And I even wanted to have sexual relations with my husband again, but it was all without any particular desire. "
In premenopause, in addition to contraceptive action, they help control the menstrual cycle, have a positive effect on the vascular system, psycho-emotional disorders, reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, cervix, endometrium, slow the manifestation of external age-related changes. The gynecologist prescribes oral contraceptives for therapeutic purposes in the presence of endometrial pathology, uterine myoma, inflammatory processes, cystic changes in the ovaries. Thus, oral contraceptives combine protection from unwanted pregnancy and therapeutic effect. After 40 years, the use of low-dose birth control pills is preferred. The peculiarity lies in the exact observance of the reception time. A difference of 4 hours is allowed; if the pill is not taken, the contraceptive effect is reduced and barrier means of protection are required. Against the background of increased distraction, you can insure yourself by setting a timer - a reminder.
How long does premenopause last?
Normally, it takes up to 5 years, starting after 45 years. The time of its beginning and duration depend on many reasons, the main of them is heredity and the presence of chronic diseases of the reproductive system. There is an early onset of changes, up to 45 years and premature - up to 40. Menopause can only be talked about after the monthly periods are completely absent during the year. Sometimes from the first symptoms to the onset of menopause 8 to 10 years pass, the cause is a malfunction in the endocrine system, diabetes.
It is impossible to give exact dates, as the first manifestations often go unnoticed and are written off for general malaise, a cold or the result of taking certain medications. The end is also rather vague, so it is believed that the average duration is 3 to 5 years.
What can be done now?
To meet the new period of life fully armed, you need to remember that this is a normal process, another round of development. To facilitate the course of hormonal adjustment can be several methods.
- Psychological stabilization. Consultation of a psychologist, mastering of auto-training, relaxation methods will help. Equipment in the house of a personal corner will benefit. For some, space and air are necessary, someone prefers a muffled light and an abundance of cute knick-knacks. The main thing is to help the atmosphere to relax and come to a good mood. It is useful to be alone with yourself, but not to look for flaws, but to think about the positive aspects. No need to abandon communication, but rush into the abyss of uncontrolled expansion of the circle of friends is not worth it. Sometimes intimate conversation with a friend for a cup of tea gives a better effect than visiting a specialist.
- Preventive actions. A lot of rejection of bad habits, a revision of the usual way of life. It is necessary to add physical activity within reasonable limits, walks in the fresh air. Complexes of exercises aimed at maintaining the elasticity of the ligaments, increasing the amplitude of movements will prevent the appearance of pain in the lower back, neck, knees.Massage of the neck area relieves spasms, reduces headache, the manifestation of a migraine, normalizes blood pressure and blood supply to the brain. It is more interesting to engage a group of like-minded people, so it’s worthwhile to look for groups of recreational gymnastics near your home.
- Revision of the diet. Symptoms of premenopausal syndrome do not require immediate treatment and appear gradually, which means that there is time to correct many processes with the help of non-pharmacological agents. Nutrition is of great importance, with the help of a well-designed diet it is possible to supply the body with the necessary substances. It is necessary to increase the proportion of vegetables, fruits, nuts, vegetable oils, and greens in the diet. From protein foods, preference is given to lean meat, fish, and seafood. It is recommended to exclude salty, smoked, spicy, fried foods. Such measures will improve the work of the gastrointestinal tract, reduce allergic reactions, replenish the supply of vitamins and microelements.
- Setting day regimen. Chronic fatigue and fatigue arise with a busy schedule. An orderly schedule, the allocation of a certain time frame for cleaning and other daily activities, visits to the doctor, and self-care will help to give relief. Repeated actions calm, give a sense of stability. With this approach, there is sure to find time to rest, to enjoy your favorite hobby, to visit and to walk.
Starting training in advance, the body receives a certain margin of safety when entering a new period.
How to alleviate menopausal syndrome in women?
An integrated approach is most effective. It includes:
- physical activity
- power change,
- gaining psychological balance
- mastering relaxation techniques and meditative practices,
- the use of folk remedies
- drug treatment according to indications of the doctor.
Well complements the complex course of massage, aromatherapy, relaxation with the help of music, doing your favorite thing. For the acquisition of stress resistance is useful breathing exercises and yoga.
The rhythm of life in a woman of 45 years is quite stressful, but there will always be time to take care of yourself, carry out cosmetic procedures, maintain the condition of skin, nails and hair, once again be sure of its attractiveness. And to maintain a good mood, to experience positive emotions, to be surprised at the diversity of the world around, realizing that premenopause is just a short period of time on the path of life.
Most of the fair sex with horror awaits the start of menopause. This fear is explainable, since the physical and mental state at this time leaves much to be desired.
The duration of this period ranges from three to four years. The production of sex hormones gradually decreases. But “critical days” may still be present, and the ability to conceive and bear offspring remains for some time. But this increases the serious risk that the pregnancy will be problematic.
Against the background of a decrease in estrogen production, the endocrine system reduces its function. Against this background, the concentration of luteinizing hormone increases. In this case, women have the following conditions:
- broken cycle
- weight gain
- reduction of skin tone,
- lowering ligament tone.
Some women have broken taste preferences. A person can start to eat a lot, against the background of which he begins to lose weight. This can lead to the development of vascular and cardiac abnormalities. The fragility of the bones increases. Bone mass decreases. Emotional state leaves much to be desired. She becomes irritable, can cry for any reason.
The average duration of this period ranges from two to three years. But some of the fair sex appear predclimax symptoms already at a young age, after 35 years. Completion of this period is observed when a woman steps over the sixty-year boundary.
What are the symptoms
A preclimax state of a woman, whose symptoms are quite diverse, can be quite painful. This syndrome is characterized by:
- numerous tides
- painful headaches
- increased heart beat,
- “Jumping” AD,
- fatigue and weakness
- decreased libido,
- monthly irregular.
A person becomes very forgetful and absent-minded. Often this is combined with strong anxiety. In women, at this time, a subdepressive or depressive state develops.
Menopausal syndrome is accompanied by profuse sweating and hot flushes. The frequency of tides varies from one to thirty times in 24 hours. Tides are combined with an increase in blood pressure and vegetative-vascular crises.
Features of the syndrome
The psyche of some women in preclimax becomes very fragile. Many become obsessed with jealousy. This is explained by the fact that before the onset of menopause, women increase sexual desire, which often remains unsatisfied.
Often women develop neurosis, psychosomatic disorders appear. Sometimes the neurosis is combined with the performance of strange "rituals".
When menopause occurs, women experience a decrease in sexual desire. The provocateur here is vaginal dryness. It can also lead to discord in the marital relationship. The “weirdness” of behavior is present to one degree or another in all. Their severity and characteristics depend on both individual characteristics and vegetative traits.
For most women, menopausal symptoms appear long before the onset of menopause. A situation where symptoms appear immediately after menopause is considered to be quite rare. For this reason, this syndrome may be present in the life of a woman for several years. Its duration depends on the individual characteristics of the person. An important factor here is the impact on a person of social, psychogenic and cultural factors.
How can I help
For help, the doctor should be contacted immediately after the appearance of the first tide. Another disturbing bell is a broken cycle. Increased sweating, indicating hormonal changes, is a serious reason to visit the gynecological clinic.
Be sure to visit the doctor when:
- violations of the evacuation of urine,
- “Dancing” hell
- the presence of seals in the mammary gland.
Abundant periods in this period are not considered an anomaly. But if the monthly go very much, then you need to call an ambulance. In order to avoid trouble, women approaching a “dangerous” age should go to the gynecologist every six months or a year. The specialist will analyze the situation and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.
Treatment is prescribed individually by a specialist, depending on the strength of the symptoms and the characteristics of the patient's body. Premenopausal syndrome is a fairly serious condition and involves intervention:
In some cases, a woman also needs a consultation from a qualified endocrinologist.
Treatment involves an integrated approach. Women are prescribed medications and psychotherapeutic courses. Most women are prescribed hormone medications. Their reception is combined with the use of tranquilizers, antipsychotics and bromides. Emotional instability and insomnia are treated with sedative medications.
HRT (hormone replacement therapy) has a special effect. In this case, women are given cyclically insignificant doses of progesterone and estrogen. Dosage is prescribed individually. The main criteria for this are the signs that characterize the syndrome, as well as the human hormonal status. HRT is strictly controlled by a doctor. If necessary, the examination is carried out once a month.
HRT is not a panacea for the premenopausal period. For some women, this type of therapy can cause significant harm. A serious complication is the development of benign neoplasms. Over time, they can become malignant.
Reception of vitamins and tranquilizers
In order to improve the state of the central nervous system, a woman can be prescribed tranquilizers. This is considered an extreme measure, because these drugs can be addictive, which is difficult to get rid of.
Vitamin E brings great benefit to the woman's body in this difficult time. The initial dosage should not exceed 400 units. twice a day. But if during the seven days the woman’s well-being has not improved, the dosage can be increased to 1.6 thousand units / 24 hours. Vitamin preparations are not prescribed for everyone. The main contraindication is hypertension.
The reduction of painful symptoms contributes to the use of vitamins C and B. They are usually prescribed to women suffering from depression or subdepressive states.
Basic preventive measures
Premenopausal syndrome may be prevented. To do this, a woman who is at risk should radically reconsider her diet and daily routine. If possible, more time should be spent outdoors. If health allows, then passive walks should be replaced by walking, swimming or cycling. It is desirable to walk near the reservoir or in the park.
Great benefit to the body brings a contrast shower. It must be taken regularly. In the morning, it is advisable to do 5-10 minute exercises. Meals should include light, wholesome food. Foods rich in harmful cholesterol should be discarded. Women who abuse alcohol and tobacco products should get rid of destructive habits as soon as possible.
The first symptoms of menopause in women
Every woman knows that sooner or later she will have to face such a difficult period in her life as climax. During this period, serious hormonal changes occur in the body, which are reflected not only in the functions of the reproductive system. Therefore, a woman should pay special attention to the state of her health during menopause.
It is quite difficult to say when a woman will have a menopause and what will be her first signs. Nevertheless, every woman after 40 years should be prepared for the fact that it can expect quite unpleasant manifestations of this condition.
One of the first signs of menopause is insomnia. A woman for a long time can not sleep. Insomnia most often causes hot flashes. A few seconds before the woman wakes up, and after the attack passes, she cannot sleep for a long time. In addition, the thought that you will not be able to sleep, increase anxiety and nervousness. It is worth noting that the cause of insomnia is not always hot flashes.
Usually headache with menopause is the so-called pain of tension. A woman can not relax, constantly experiencing internal anxiety and negative emotions, depression is also a frequent companion of the coming menopause. The woman herself does not notice that as a result of this, she has tension in the mimic muscles, because of which her facial expression becomes gloomy. The tension of the muscles of the face extends to the muscles of the neck and shoulders, which turns into links in a closed circuit: anxiety, depression, internal discomfort aggravate the headache.
With the onset of menopause, the appearance of a migraine is also possible - sudden attacks of severe headache in the temples or the frontal region, with a possible darkening in the eyes.
Mood swings, tearfulness, tension, anxiety
Many women note dramatic changes in the emotional background, a cheerful carefree mood can be replaced by a fit of tearfulness and irritability without a reason. Some ladies complain of discomfort in the throat (lump in the throat), they constantly want to make a swallowing movement to get rid of it, but this does not help. In addition to discomfort, this feeling does not manifest itself, does not interfere with talking, eating and drinking, does not cause pain. Over time, the problem disappears by itself. However, if such a symptom has arisen and continues to disturb a woman for a long time, this is a reason to consult a doctor, since such sensations can occur in cases of thyroid diseases.
Dryness and itching in the vagina
Due to hormonal changes that occur in the body during menopause, changes occur in the genitals. First of all, thinning of the mucous membrane of the vagina and reducing the amount of natural lubricant in it. As a result of these changes, women may experience dryness and itching in the vagina. These discomforts can increase during intercourse and even hurt a woman.
Increased urination, urinary incontinence
This unpleasant symptom can also indicate the onset of menopause, with the onset of which the amount of hormones decreases, thanks to the action of which the tone of the bladder and its sphincters is maintained. Because of this, women may experience discomfort during urination, frequent urges. It is also possible to excrete a small amount of urine when coughing, sneezing, while laughing. Such unpleasant symptoms give the woman moral discomfort, which may further aggravate the depressed state.
Some time after the appearance of the first symptoms of menopause in women, there is a violation of the menstrual cycle. From the onset of hot flashes, irritability, and headaches to these disorders, it may take several years. Menstruation becomes irregular, scanty. and then completely cease.
During the onset of menopause, special attention should be paid to contraception. Despite the fact that the ability to conceive a woman is sharply reduced, the eggs still continue to function for some time, and pregnancy is possible. The absence of menstruation in this case is usually attributed to the irregularity of the cycle.
If you notice the appearance of signs of menopause, you are worried about hot flashes, irritability and insomnia, then it is better to consult a doctor. The gynecologist will prescribe drugs that will help smooth out the unpleasant manifestations of this condition, and will also recommend the most optimal methods of contraception during this period.
Traditionally, to eliminate the symptoms of menopause, hormone therapy is used - it quickly cleans up the body and smoothes the discomfort. With all the benefits, hormone therapy is not shown to everyone, it is not prescribed to women:
- with cardiovascular diseases,
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract,
- excretory system
In such cases, it is justified to resort to treatment with natural non-hormonal agents. In the period of menopause, a whole complex of problems arises, having basically vegetative-vascular symptoms (hot flushes, excessive sweating, rapid heartbeat) and psycho-emotional factors - irritability, insomnia, fatigue. The German drug Klimaktoplan successfully copes with manifestations of autonomic dysfunction and neuro-emotional discomfort. Natural components in its composition act immediately complex, the lack of hormones in it ensures good tolerability, the drug is available and sold without a prescription
It is also recommended in conjunction with a gynecologist to choose the most optimal methods of contraception.
Which doctor to contact
Every woman should see a gynecologist when the first symptoms of menopause appear. This is necessary, firstly, in order to exclude pregnancy and get recommendations for rational protection, as well as hormone replacement therapy. In addition, it will be useful to consult a cardiologist and examine the state of the cardiovascular system. If a woman is disturbed by a sleep disorder, a headache can be consulted by a neurologist, with emotional lability by a psychologist.
How does menopause begin
Nowadays, thanks to the media, what it is and how menopause begins, everyone knows everything from grandfathers to children of primary school age. Every woman, after 40 years of age, begins to listen to herself, trying to determine if she has started. And despite this fame, few women know exactly what is happening in the body at this time, what time does the menopause begin and how to help yourself survive it.
What is menopause, and at what age begins menopause in women.
Climax or climacteric period is a physiological process characterized by age-related changes in the genital sphere. At this time, the female reproductive system ceases to perform its functions and the level of sex hormones is significantly reduced, which leads to the appearance of menopause symptoms.
At what age and how will menopause begin depends on genetic predisposition. Usually, menopause occurs in women between 45–50 years and lasts for 1.5–2 years. Less common early menopause - up to 40 years and late - after 55.
Причины, приводящие к наступлению климакса — это изменение гормонального фона, уже после 30 лет уровень женских гормонов начинает понемногу снижаться, с этим связаны трудности в зачатии в более старшем возрасте и изменения во внешности — появление морщин, потеря упругости и гладкости кожи. The level of estrogen in the blood is directly related to the maturation of the follicles in the ovaries. Their number is limited and amounts to 300–400, by the age of 40 the stock is depleted, and the maturation of the eggs in the ovaries ceases.
Some time hormones are still being produced, but their level gradually decreases and does not reach the necessary concentrations. It is this disappearance of hormones that causes the symptoms of menopause. Each woman in different ways endures a hormonal adjustment, therefore, the severity of convolutions and the duration of this period are individual.
What would be unpleasant symptoms of menopause, the main thing to remember is that all this is a temporary condition. A lot depends on the psychological mood of a woman: knowing about the reasons for the changes that are taking place, not being frightened or irritated by their appearance, it is much easier to endure this unpleasant period in life.
The beginning of menopause and signs of its appearance, it is better to know in advance. Usually this period lasts for several months and takes place in all different ways. It depends on the level of estrogen, the rate of decrease in hormone levels and constitutional features. If the level of hormones was not too high, but it decreases rather slowly - in this case, the signs will be hardly noticeable and will not bring any particular anxiety. And with a high level of hormones and a sharp decrease in their number - the symptoms of menopause will be very intense, especially noticeable during surgical interventions - removal of the ovaries, radiation or other similar situations. No matter how menopause proceeds, the main thing to remember is that this is a temporary phenomenon, the physiological process of the movement of our life, and not a disease.
How the menopause proceeds depends on the state of the body and the level of estrogen. A woman is experiencing "hot flashes" - a feeling of heat, a rush of blood to the face and head, heartbeat, increased pressure.
In addition, there are such symptoms as: excessive sweating, trembling of the extremities, flashing flies before the eyes, muscle cramps and spasms, dry skin and mucous membranes, aversion to food and insomnia may occur.
Another distinctive feature of hormonal disorders during menopause is emotional lability. This can be expressed in the appearance of tearfulness, irritation, attacks of aggression or a depressive state.
There are 3 stages of menopause:
- Premenopause - the first stage of menopause occurs after 40 years, the body begins to produce less and less estrogen and menstruation becomes irregular, discharge decreases or, conversely, increases. This period lasts several years, can last up to 10 years.
- Menopause - or the menopause itself, estrogens practically do not enter the body, menstruation stops completely. The period after the onset of the last menstruation - this is menopause, its duration is 1 year.
- Postmenopause - occurs one year after the cessation of menstruation and lasts for 3–15 years. How long menopause lasts depends on the speed of restructuring of the endocrine system and the adaptation of the organism to new conditions. During this period, due to the absence of sex hormones, such unpleasant diseases as osteoporosis, disorders of the thyroid gland or the cardiovascular system may occur.
Receiving vitamins, regular visits to the doctor, proper nutrition and moderate exercise will make it easy to survive the age-related changes and stay healthy and beautiful for many more years.
If you started menopause and you do not know what to do, we recommend an article on passion.ru - how to reduce the symptoms of menopause. We also recommend - Ovarian dysfunction.
Age of onset of menopause in women, the first signs and symptoms
Between the ages of 45 and 55, the production of sex hormones decreases in each of the women. During this period, a significant restructuring of the body.
About how, at what age the climax begins, quite recently it was not customary to speak. Now this question is discussed constantly and publicly. Most women want to live a full life, without the unpleasant symptoms of menopause.
So, if we take into account statistical indicators from around the world, the climacteric age on average occurs in the range from 43 to 54 years. Only in 5% of women menstruation does not stop after they have crossed the 55-year mark. Unfortunately, no indicators can guarantee that your menopause does not begin at 40 years of age.
Factors that accelerate or delay the onset of menopause
To begin with, in order to understand at what age the menopause comes, you need to find out how old menopause has come for mother and grandmother. Since it is the hereditary factor in this case is of paramount importance.
To understand the age at which menopause occurs, it is necessary to take into account not only the genetic predisposition, but also the reasons that can accelerate the hormone deficiency:
- chronic illnesses (diabetes, thyroid disease, cardiovascular disorders, malignant neoplasms),
- bad habits,
- stress, mental strain (often the cause of excitement - menopause),
- hard physical work, excessive sports training,
- low social and material standard of living, poor nutrition,
- low sexual activity and lack of regular sexual contact with women,
- surgery on the uterus, ovaries, mammary glands,
- chemo or radiation therapy (regardless of how old).
There are also some factors that help to delay the onset of symptoms of menopause:
- place of residence (solar radiation favors a later onset of menopause)
- proper nutrition, normal weight,
- long-term use of hormonal drugs (before the menopause came),
- use of phytoestrogens for women: sage, soy, oregano, linden and alfalfa,
- orientation to the husband and children,
- sufficient physical activity (dancing, yoga, fitness, dancing, energetic walking).
The premenopausal period occurs at an age of about 40 years and can last from two to 9 years. Then comes the menopause.
A woman should be aware that no gynecologist will indicate exactly at what age she will know all the “delights” of the new condition. The main thing to understand that the onset of menopause is inevitable and do not panic. This state includes three characteristic preparatory steps, during which the organism adapts to a new state.
It is in the premenopausal period that the first signs of menopause develop in women. Menopause is manifested by the extinction of the hormonal function of the ovaries. The probability of pregnancy is significantly reduced. Such natural changes occur as the failure of menstruation, they become abundant, possible bleeding or scarce, irregular. If the onset of menopause is normal, then the period between menstruation gradually increases from 30 to 80 days. In rare cases, it happens that the monthly stop suddenly.
Other symptoms characteristic of early menopause include:
- numbness of the limbs
- heart palpitations,
- constricting feeling in the chest,
- breast engorgement,
- crawling goosebumps and tingling,
- muscle pain, fatigue,
- blood pressure fluctuations
- decreased libido
- unreasonable headaches,
- change in taste preferences,
- weakness, disability,
- feeling short of breath.
Severe manifestations of menopause during the premenopause period are rare. At the first appearance of characteristic symptoms, a woman should be sensitive to her health. It will not be out of place to go to an appointment with a specialist, especially when the age is nearing 45, in order to receive a qualified consultation. Prophylactic examinations are necessary at any age, even if menopause has not yet come.
Sources: http://myfamilydoctor.ru/pervye-simptomy-klimaksa-u-zhenshhin/, http://tibet-medicine.ru/polza/kak-nachinaetsya-klimaks, http://tibet-medicine.ru/klimaks / vozrast-klimaksa-u-zhenshhin
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Postmenopause is considered the period from the last spontaneous menstruation to the end of a woman’s life. At this stage in the life of a woman, the ovarian production of hormones finally stops, the level of estrogens becomes consistently low. The skin of the labia is flabby, the pubic hair becomes rare, the shape of the mammary glands also changes, the nipples flatten, the skin becomes flabby. During a gynecological examination, a decrease in the amount of mucus from the cervix is noticeable, gradually it disappears completely.