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Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, what to treat, features of the disease during pregnancy

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Violation of the vaginal microflora occurs for various reasons and quite often. And since the organ is part of the reproductive system, it is only natural that the disease affects their functioning in the best way. It has many manifestations. But the most notable of them is that bacterial vaginosis during menstruation is able to change the characteristics and timing of the process.

Read in this article.

About the disease

The healthy mucous membrane of the vagina has a huge amount of various bacteria as a part of microflora. Disruption of their balance with a decrease in the number of useful and an increase in pathogens causes its inflammation. Similar things can happen under the influence of:

  • Hormonal failure. Substances are directly involved in the formation of the vaginal microflora. And the violations themselves may be due to improper ovarian and thyroid gland functioning,
  • Diseases of the cervix uteri. They provoke hormonal problems and weakened immunity. All this together can affect the composition of the vaginal flora,
  • Uncontrolled and excessive use of antibiotics. Drugs inhibit the activity of all bacteria, and this causes an imbalance between them,
  • Use to protect the Navy. Being in the uterus, that is, near the vagina, the tool directly affects the mucous membrane, especially when it also secretes hormones.

There are other circumstances that cause bacterial vaginosis, while menstruation changes, mainly due to the effects of these reasons.

The disease to a certain level proceeds unnoticed by a woman. But over time, gives himself:

  • Discharges with a fishy smell, more abundant than before, with slippery, stretching clots,
  • Burning and itching of the vaginal mucosa,
  • Unpleasant sensations during sex.

Bacterial Vaginosis and Cycle

Given the signs of the disease, the location of pathogens and features, it is not necessary to doubt whether bacterial vaginosis affects menstruation. A healthy vaginal microflora protects the internal genital organs from infections that exist in other systems, especially closely located urinary. In case of its violation, the danger of diseases for them increases.

Whether there can be a delay in menstruation with bacterial vaginosis often depends on this. If there is cystitis, urethritis and inflammation of the vaginal walls, a cycle failure is inevitable, since pathogens can get into the uterine cavity, its appendages. Menstruation will move back for up to 2 weeks or more.

But in a normal sex life, if there is a delay, do not forget to do the tests. The act of such a disease does not give pleasure, but does not exclude pregnancy.

Delay, vaginosis and hormones: what is the connection between them?

Processes occurring in the vagina cannot exist autonomously from other reproductive organs. Inflammation of its inner covering, due to pathogenic bacteria, can affect the ovaries. And sometimes the infection is caused by a violation of their work. Paired organs can not produce a sufficient amount of hormones necessary for the development of the follicle and egg. Therefore, in women with a similar diagnosis, a common question related to infection is: is it possible to delay menstruation with bacterial vaginosis? Yes, this is a common manifestation of the disease when it is combined with a lack of working capacity of the ovaries. The delay can be from several days to weeks.

There is another explanation for the long waiting for menstruation. A significant part of the discharge with it is the tissue of the upper layer of the mucous membrane of the uterus. He, too, is experiencing cyclical changes due to the influence of hormones. But the disease develops against the background of their deficiency or imbalance. As a result, all the processes in the endometrium occur more slowly than the delay of menstruation is caused during bacterial vaginosis.

Inflammation of the vagina and the absence of menstruation

Guilty of delaying menstruation can be not only sex hormones. Bacterial vaginosis is more common in women with excess glucose in the blood. Lack of insulin or its immunity to the body can cause problems with the production of sex hormones. Hence the long delay. The same reaction of the reproductive system may be caused by insufficient thyroid function.

Hormonal failure is so significant that menstruation does not occur for quite a long time. In such a situation it would be useful to make a pregnancy test, because conception is still likely. If it is negative, the problem is whether the absence of menstruation with bacterial vaginosis is possible, dictates the necessity of examining the endocrine system.

How does the nature of menstruation during inflammation of the surface of the vagina

A characteristic feature of the disease is an increase in secretions. The vagina and in a healthy state produces a secretory fluid. During infection, waste products of pathogenic bacteria are added to it, and the volume of mucosal cells also increases. This often bacterial vaginosis before menstruation itself and gives out. The discharge becomes sticky, more abundant, smelling bad. This allows an attentive woman to suspect trouble and go to the doctor and for tests.

With an increase in the secretory function of the vagina due to a lack of understanding of whether bacterial vaginosis can cause abundant menstruation. As a rule, he is the culprit of such a character. But this reason is not the only one. Hormonal imbalances during infection may also have different features. One of them is an excessive number of estrogens that make the endometrium thicker at the end of the cycle. The volume of excreted tissue increases when replacing its upper layer, which causes abundant menstruation with bacterial vaginosis.

The consistency and color of menstrual flow

Since the mucus with a bad smell is also added to the menstrual flow, it is not surprising that during menstruation with bacterial vaginosis become more liquid, often change color to light. This results from the fact that the unhealthy vaginal secret of a whitish shade, grayish or transparent. With the development of infection, it acquires a yellow-green color, becomes more dense, which changes the consistency of the menstrual flow.

Long lasting disease in 30% of cases affects the cervix, causing it to form erosions, scars, inflammations. Dark brown menstruation with bacterial vaginosis means precisely the defeat of its epithelial layer, since its cells appear in the secretions.

The disease is often adjacent to thrush, which is triggered by the causative agent of the genus candida. In all cases, it goes against the background of reduced immunity, which makes possible the addition of a fungal infection. Candidiasis causes the appearance of cheesy contents in the vagina. Therefore, bacterial vaginosis and menstrual flakes are the usual combination in this case. Most of them are products of the functioning of pathogenic bacteria and fungus.

Hygiene during critical days with this infection is of paramount importance. It is not enough to wash thoroughly and regularly, change gaskets, and eliminate tampons. It is necessary to use at the same time means that do not cause allergies. Then bacterial vaginosis does not worsen during menstruation.

How does the disease after menstruation

The end of critical days is accompanied by a soothing "hormonal storm", which, it would seem, should favorably affect the manifestations of the disease. But since the infection is often caused and itself provokes violations in this area, vaginosis after menstruation can worsen. This also contributes to the menstrual flow, feeding the painful flora and supporting inflammation. At the end of the menstrual period, the mucus will continue to come out, but of an off-white color, possibly increasing discomfort, the appearance of an itch that did not show up in the vagina and perineum.

It is imperative to get rid of bacterial vaginosis, despite the fact that at the initial stage it does not cause severe discomfort. There are women who tolerate this for years using daily pads with perfumes that mask the smell of discharge as a “therapy.” This is a big mistake, as the inflammation will not be limited to the vaginal mucosa, but will definitely cause various lesions of other organs, even urinary. Violations of the cycle can take on such a character that a woman will not be able to become pregnant. And if this can be done, it is likely that the fetus is infected, interrupted at any time, the birth of a premature baby.

Antibiotic therapy

Since, regardless of the reasons for calling the disease, pathogens are always present in the vagina, therapy should be directed primarily against them. This means taking pills:

The drugs listed here are the optimal treatment of vaginosis in menstruation, when the use of local medications is meaningless. If the disease is neglected, prescribe stronger antibiotics:

They are able to destroy a wider range of bacteria, but they have contraindications. Therefore, these funds should be prescribed only by a doctor after appropriate examination. The wrong choice provokes an increase in the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, because drugs can be one of the reasons for its occurrence.
At the end of menstruation, treatment of the vagina with remedies for mucous membrane rehabilitation is shown:

  • Dalatsin. This antibacterial cream is based on clindamycin. It is inserted into the vagina 1 time per day for 3-7 days,
  • Flagyl. Candles containing metronidazole are used intravaginally for 10 days.

Remedial treatment

Antibacterial treatment is an obligatory component of the general therapy of inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, but this is by no means all. Drugs inhibit the pathogenic flora, but do not revive the beneficial and do not support the body's defenses. And this is necessary for this ailment, otherwise relapse is inevitable.

The same purposes are used drugs containing good bacteria, which are in short supply with this disease. Intravaginally used candles Lactobacterin and Bifidumbacterin, oral capsules Linex. Sexual contact is excluded during treatment.

When the cycle is restored after recovery

Bacterial vaginosis is eliminated fairly quickly, although it tends to return. Another thing - the restoration of the menstrual cycle. Since hormone problems are often the basis of the disease, women complain that there is no menstruation after the treatment of vaginosis. In case of a serious failure in this area, it is not enough to eliminate the inflammatory process on the mucous membrane and return the microflora to normal. It is necessary to find out what caused the violations, whether other reproductive organs are affected by infections.

If it is determined that everything is in order with them, it is that the antimicrobial agents are to blame after the treatment of vaginosis has stopped monthly. In the treatment of the disease are used quite strong drugs that can affect the cycle. For the body it is quite sensitive stress. In this case, you should wait for menstruation, taking a fortifying vitamin complexes. It is necessary to pass a blood test for hormones, because antibiotics can change their quantitative composition. If the imbalance is significant, the doctor may prescribe medication to correct it.

Quite often, bacterial vaginosis occurs during menstruation for the first time. This is facilitated by hormonal changes inherent in the process and a marked decrease in immunity. But do not blame one menstruation. It happens in all mature women, but not everyone has an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa. Monthly serve only as a trigger with the already mentioned health problems. Having got rid of the latter, a woman will not have to fear critical days due to the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis recurrence.

Before using any drugs, you should consult with a physician. There are contraindications.

Factors

Root causethe appearance of vaginosis is considered a change in the composition of the vaginal environment. Normally, the main part of the microflora is represented by lactobacilli. Only 5% are conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Under the influence of certain factors, the level of beneficial bacteria decreases, while that of pathogens increases. As a result, a woman has atypical discharge, which is a waste product of pathogenic microbes. Pathology is not sexually transmitted. It occurs under the influence of internal or external factors.

An acute inflammatory process or a decrease in immune defense can provoke a disease. In some cases, the development of pathology contribute to hormonal disorders, accompanied by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. This happens during menopause or in adolescence. The likelihood of developing the disease increases with violation of the standards of hygiene of the genital organs. Excessive cleanliness can also lead to vaginosis. Aggressive cleansers wash out lactobacilli, which promotes reproduction of pathogenic flora.

The risk zone includes women who have undergone surgery, using an intrauterine device and are in contact with radioactive radiation. Sometimes the disease develops as a result of genital deformities or intestinal dysbiosis. In addition, the trigger may be a pregnancy. In most cases, vaginosis develops under the influence of several factors at once. The causative agents can be the following types of bacteria:

  • megasphere,
  • Gardnerella,
  • bacteroids,
  • atopobium,
  • peptokokki,
  • leptotriksy.

A characteristic sign of vaginosis is copious discharge, accompanied by an unpleasant odor. They are grayish or white. Normally, the volume of discharge is 2 ml per day. With vaginosis, their number increases 10 times. The intensity of vaginal secretion varies depending on the presence of comorbidities, the frequency of sexual contacts and the phases of the menstrual cycle.

Against the background of the development of vaginosis, itching and burning sensation may appear during urination. Sometimes there are problems in intimate life. The secretions have a sticky texture and a repulsive fishy smell. They increase after sexual contact, causing discomfort in the genital area.

In the chronic course of the disease, the symptoms are mild, so the diagnosis is complicated. Visual signs of illness are not observed. During a gynecological examination, plaque may be found on the genitals. In women of menopausal age, there are red spots on the walls of the vagina. Sometimes the disease occurs in conjunction with chlamydia or gonorrhea. In this case, it represents a particular danger to reproductive function. Developing during pregnancy, pathology can harm a baby.

Disease classification

There are three degrees of bacterial vaginosis, which can be identified only after conducting laboratory tests. Each is characterized by certain changes in the composition of microflora. Depending on them, the intensity of symptoms will also differ.

It is called compensated macvagiasis. The main features include a decrease in the volume of lactobacilli and pathogens in the smear. Most often, the deviation is temporary. It occurs after antibacterial treatment, deep disinfection of the vagina and chemotherapy.

Subcompensated bacterial disease is characterized by an increased amount of microbial flora against the background of a decrease in the volume of lactobacilli. Single cells of atypical structure can be detected in the smear. Bacterial flora inhabits them both from the inside and outside. In this case, a moderate number of leukocytes is observed.

Decompensated or clinically expressed bacterial vaginosis is characterized by the absence of lactobacilli. Key cells fill the entire microflora space. They can be both one type and a combination of several types at once. The severity of symptoms in the third degree of pathology is more intense.

Monthly with bacterial vaginosis

Ailment can affect the nature of menstrual flow. Before the start of critical days, a woman may notice significant discomfort in the vagina. It is caused by the appearance of an atypical secret of a sticky consistency. Menstrual blood in vaginosis becomes brighter than usual. Its volume increases, a specific smell appears. Mucous clots can be found in the menstrual flow. The presence of a brown secret indicates damage to the cervical epithelium.

Most often, vaginosis does not affect the regularity of the cycle. Violations can occur when joining a secondary infection or on the background of hormonal abnormalities. After menstruation, the symptoms of vaginosis may become more pronounced. Для этого периода характерны слизистые выделения с примесями крови.

Бактериальный вагиноз при беременности: особенности лечения

Заболевание не оказывает влияния на фертильность женщины ввиду отсутствия воспалительного процесса в органах репродуктивной системы. During an illness, the environment of the vagina is considered comfortable for sperm. It does not hinder their progress. In spite of this, vaginosis is dangerous during pregnancy. Pathogenic microorganisms are able to penetrate the uterus, causing disturbances in the development of the child. In some cases, the disease is fraught with abortion. If you do not eliminate the disease before delivery, there is a risk of sepsis in the postpartum period.

Treatment of the disease is to take antibacterial drugs. In pregnancy, they are allowed to take only after the second trimester. The duration of therapy should not exceed seven days. Commonly used medications include Metronidazole and Dalacin. In the first trimester, suppositories for vaginal administration are prescribed. The most common drug is Hexicon. Its action is based on the content of chlorhexidine.

Diagnostics

For the diagnosis of visual inspection and interviewing the patient is not enough. More research is needed. Analysis of a vaginal smear will determine the number of lactobacilli and pathogenic microorganisms. In the case of vaginosis, the acidity will be increased. When carrying out the amine test, the reaction of the vaginal smear to potassium hydroxide is evaluated. The appearance of fishy smell during the study indicates the presence of the disease.

How to treat ailment

To eliminate vaginosis requires an integrated approach. It involves the use of oral and vaginal medicines of antibacterial origin. Additionally, medications that restore the microflora are prescribed. Menopausal women need estrogen-based drugs.

Antibiotics have a suppressive effect on the immune system. Therefore, to strengthen the protective forces shown intake of vitamin complexes and immunomodulators. Folk ways to eliminate vaginosis are used as additional measures.

Antimicrobial drugs

Such tools have a targeted effect on pathogens. In the initial stages of practicing the use of local drugs. These include medical tampons, vaginal suppositories and gels. The following medicines are considered the most effective:

  • Clindamycin,
  • Trichopol,
  • Metronidazole,
  • Metrogil.

With pronounced symptoms, the patient can be placed in a hospital where antibiotics will be administered by the intravenous route. For the prevention of fungal diseases prescribe candles Vagiferon, Polygynax, Wagisept or Terzhinan. The course of treatment is 10 days. Suppositories administered before bedtime one by one. Epigen spray in the form of a spray is sprayed into the vagina three times a day. It is indicated for the treatment and prevention of viral diseases.

Preparations for the restoration of microflora

After the elimination of pathogenic microbes, it is necessary to normalize the vaginal flora. Therefore, as part of treatment, prebiotics and probiotics are prescribed. For oral administration, Linex capsules are used. They are taken three times a day after meals. For vaginal administration, Bifidumbacterin and Lactobacterin suppositories are intended. Daily administered one suppository for 10 days.

Folk methods

Alternative medicine can not act as the main treatment. Before using them it is recommended to consult a doctor. Effective action in vaginosis have tampons soaked in plant solutions. These include aloe juice and sea buckthorn oil in equal proportions with olive. The tool is recommended to enter into the vagina before bedtime.

To relieve the symptoms of the disease helps bath on the basis of herbal decoctions. The collection of chamomile, juniper, oak bark, oat straw and walnut leaves will help to eliminate itching and reduce the amount of discharge. Herbal mixture is filled with hot water and infused for several hours. Then the broth is filtered and added to a small basin or bath. The duration of the procedure is 10-15 minutes.

To enhance immunity use a decoction of the berries of mountain ash. In 400 ml of drink add 2 tbsp. l honey and two shredded onions. The components are mixed and refrigerated. Received medication taken by 1 tbsp. l four times a day.

Prevention

Timely action will prevent the development of bacterial vaginosis. The principles of prevention of the disease are aimed at eliminating provoking factors. The first step is to monitor the state of the immune system. It is equally important to adhere to certain rules:

  1. Regular cleansing procedures reduce the risk of bacteria entering the body. Hygiene of the intimate zone is carried out with the help of specialized tools that do not affect the acidity of the vagina.
  2. In order to prevent hormonal abnormalities and inflammatory diseases, it is necessary to regularly visit a gynecologist. Routine inspections should be carried out every six months.
  3. After surgery, antibacterial drugs should be taken. They exclude the possibility of infection in the wound cavity.
  4. Proper nutrition and moderate exercise will strengthen the body, which will increase its resistance to infections. Fermented milk products must be present in the diet of women of reproductive age.

Conclusion

Bacterial vaginosis delivers a lot of trouble. It is particularly dangerous for pregnant women. If you find signs of disease, you should immediately consult a doctor. Conservative treatment will allow to get rid of the characteristic symptoms within 7-10 days. In the process of therapy, special attention should be paid to hygiene. In addition, it is desirable for the time to abandon intimate intimacy. If you follow the recommendations of the gynecologist, you can get rid of vaginosis and avoid recurrence of the disease.

Causes of

Nature has provided various mechanisms in the body of women to protect against the development of pathologies, including infections. But modern fashion trends in hygiene of the genitals, a variety of sex, etc. - All this often disrupts the normal mucosal biocenosis, contributing to the development of bacterial vaginosis.

Normal flora

In the vagina on the "guard of order" are sticks of Dederlein, which are so named after the discoverer. The number of them in the norm should exceed 1 * 10 8 CFU / ml when sowing the contents from the mucous membrane, and should reach 95 - 98% of the total number of microorganisms. These lactobacilli perform a number of functions, imperceptibly protecting a woman's body from the development of conditionally and pathogenic flora, which may be present in the vagina permanently or temporarily. Their main action:

  • Dederleyn sticks in the course of their life emit lactic acid, which creates an acidic environment in the vagina. In such conditions, many bacteria that cause disease die immediately. And the Dederlein sticks themselves, at an acidic pH, multiply freely.
  • Lactobacilli also produce lysozyme, a substance that “dissolves” pathogenic microorganisms.
  • The acidic environment "selects" among the sperm, leaving only healthy forms for fertilization of the egg.

The role of Dederlein's chopsticks is invaluable. But their number can vary considerably, which depends on many factors.

Stages of development of bacterial vaginosis

Under certain conditions, the number of beneficial lactobacilli decreases. At the same time, they begin to actively replace pathogenic microorganisms that either entered the vagina or were always present here, but in minimum values.

Such bacteria create an alkaline environment, which prevents the reproduction of Dederlein rods and further aggravates the situation. At the same time, the epithelium of the vaginal mucosa begins to be actively exfoliated due to exposure to pathogens. As a result, whites appear, exceeding the usual values ​​in number.

As a result, the main composition of the vaginal microflora is not lactobacilli, but others: peptococci, gardnerella, bacteroids, leptotrihs, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and others. Among them may appear and unambiguous pathogens that enter the vagina during unprotected sex - chlamydia, trichomonas, gonococci, as well as herpes viruses or papillomas.

Effective treatment of bacterial vaginosis involves the elimination of all pathogens and the creation of conditions for the active reproduction of Dederlein sticks.

Risk factors

Bacterial vaginosis is not an inflammatory pathology, but it can occur against the background of an existing sexual infection. Often this condition is called Gardnerellosis, since it is these bacteria that in most cases prevail.

Bacterial vaginosis develops under the influence of the following factors:

  • Disruption of the balance of sex hormones (with a predominance of progesterone), the thyroid gland (more often with hypothyroidism). Also when raising androgens.
  • With the development of systemic autoimmune diseases and long-term use of cytotoxic and hormonal drugs.
  • When the intestinal microflora is disturbed, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microorganisms of the vagina also changes.
  • Often develops during menopause against the background of atrophic changes in the mucous membrane.
  • With long courses of antibiotic therapy for some kind of disease.
  • In case of non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. For example, many people think that douching is helpful. But prolonged washing of the vagina can, on the contrary, be harmful.
  • Also, the use of some spermicides (in particular, containing nonoxynol), contributes to the violation of flora.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners and lack of protection from infections.

You can identify women who are at risk for developing bacterial vaginosis. These include:

  • Those who have acute (disease-related) or chronic immunodeficiency states.
  • Women "easy" behavior and promiscuous sex.
  • Overweight. It has a fact of hormonal imbalance in the body.
  • Those who regularly practice oral, anal and other types of sex.
  • Women with thyroid disease, diabetes, or other metabolic disorders.

Symptoms of pathology

Clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis can occur even in girls who are not yet sexually active. In such situations, this is due to some kind of disruption in the body. Symptoms of Gardnerella can develop independently of sexual intercourse. But if it is provoked by him, then the first signs appear only after 24 - 48 hours. These include:

  • Increase the number of whiter. They get a gray tint. Most often become noticeable immediately after menstruation. Bleach have a characteristic "fish" smell.
  • Also, sometimes itching and burning, redness in the genital and vaginal area.

Sometimes the symptoms are subtle or coming - are found several times a month. In such cases, you can not give them enough attention. Should I treat bacterial vaginosis? Of course, necessarily, otherwise reducing the local defenses will lead to various inflammatory diseases. Moreover, the process can already go to the uterine cavity, appendages and cause irreversible damage.

Vaginosis treatment

Therapy of bacterial vaginosis, as a rule, does not bring special difficulties if the course is not burdened by some sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, before starting treatment, a complete examination by PCR and culture of STI should be performed.

Therapy consists of several stages. The appointment of certain drugs in a particular situation can only be determined by a doctor.

Antibacterial drugs or drugs with a similar effect.

The standard treatment is metronidazole. It can be tablets with him, candles for bacterial vaginosis or even gel. Standard regimen: 500 mg tablets 1 twice daily for 7–10 days. Metronidazole is also included in Metrogil, Flagil and others.

Clindamycin is less commonly used. It can be administered in pills, candles or as a gel. Often in the treatment regimen includes several forms of the drug. For example, pills and candles at the same time.

Instead of antibiotics, iodine-containing candles can also be used with other antiseptics. Often they are used because of their safety in pregnant women. These are the preparations "Betadine", "Povidone-iodine", "Hexicon", "Chlorhexidine" and others.

Inclusion in the scheme of candles with a combined action - antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and others is popular. For example, "Terzhinan" or "Poliginaks".

Preparations for the restoration of the vaginal flora

Along with the main treatment, therapy is prescribed, in parallel or after the course, in restoring the number of Dederleyn sticks. This is a guarantee that relapse will not come soon. Any drugs can be used, for example, Laktozhinal, Bioflor, Vaginorm and others. Duration and dose determined by the doctor.

Other means

If necessary, antifungal drugs are also included in the scheme (for the symptoms of thrush).

When a specific infection is detected (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, and others), treatment includes etiotropic drugs. Most often it is an additional antibiotic or antiviral agent.

We recommend reading an article about gonorrhea. From it you will learn about the ways of infection and signs of the presence of the disease, symptoms of a lesion, diagnosis, treatment of infection and possible relapses.

Previously asked:

My husband and I were treated for mitvidazole for bucvaginosis, pills, three days of candles left for Terzhan, can I not protect myself on the day of ovulation?

I had vaginosis during pregnancy, it’s impossible to convey how scared I was when there was not only an itch, but also a terrible smell. I thought that the gynecologist soothes when she said that vaginosis is treated quickly. Salvagin gel was prescribed, she believed that everything was not so bad after the first day of treatment, and in the morning there was no rotten smell. Treated for five days. More vaginosis did not recur, the pregnancy went well, the baby was born healthy.

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What is bacterial vaginosis?

Normally, the woman's vagina is not sterile - bacteria live in it, which create a certain biocenosis responsible for maintaining the genitals “safe”.

The basis of normal flora - Dederleyn sticks, they are lactic acid bacteria and make up almost 95-97% of microorganisms in the vagina of healthy women. While maintaining the required amount of the body, other microbes are not terrible, some of which are conditional pathogens (under certain conditions they can cause inflammation in the vagina — these are gardnerella, fuzobakterii, stetokokkki and others).

Bacterial vaginosis is one of the variants of the microflora of a woman’s vagina, in which a large number of Gardnerell is found in smears, and the girl herself is worried about various symptoms associated with a change in the nature of the discharge. The second name for bacvaginosis is Gardnerellosis. This is not inflammation, but an extreme norm, which, if ignored, can lead to more serious consequences than “fish” secretions.

However, in some cases, bacterial vaginosis is a marker for the presence of infections in the genital tract, for example, ureaplasma, chlamydia, mycoplasma. But because they are hidden and for some time they may not give out themselves clinically, the detection of gardnerell is the first signal for a more thorough examination.

Bacterial vaginosis has two ways to continue - the normalization of the flora with an increase in the number of Dederleyn sticks and the acidic environment, as well as "degeneration" into vaginitis - inflammation. The latter is observed with depletion of the reserve forces of the body, immunodeficiency, as well as if the cause of bacvaginosis is a hidden genital infection.

Although gardnerella can be transmitted through unprotected sex, it is not a genital infection. In a healthy man, conditional pathogens will not cause disease. However, regular sexual intercourse with a woman with vivid manifestations of bacterial vaginosis can cause an unpleasant sensation of her partner, including acute urethritis, balanoposthitis, and other manifestations.

Bacterial vaginosis often develops in the following groups of women:

  • in case of diabetes mellitus or not yet diagnosed increase in the level of glucose in the blood, as well as overweight, this changes the pH of vaginal secretions in an alkaline environment, which reduces the number of dederlein sticks and creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of conditional pathogens,

  • with the uncontrolled intake of antibacterial, while its own useful flora, along with pathogens, is destroyed,
  • in case of cervical pathology, pathogenic bacteria are easier to attach to and then multiply on the modified surface of the uterus,
  • with long-term use of hormonal contraception, as the level of endogenous estrogens decreases,
  • with promiscuous unprotected sex because of the risk of genital infections,
  • a woman in menopause due to a lack of "protective" estrogen ",
  • in case of genital injuries and inadequate restoration of their functions "
  • with excessive personal hygiene and frequent use of douches.

And here more about the treatment of gardnerella.

Communication delay, vaginosis and hormones

Disruption of the menstrual cycle can be for various reasons, one of which is an imbalance of sex hormones. The delay in this case is inevitable, it can be from several days to a couple of weeks or more. Against this background, signs of dysbiosis and gardnerella can appear.

The fact is that in the first phase of the cycle a woman is under the additional “protection” of estrogens - they favor the reproduction of Dederlein’s rods, protecting the vaginal mucosa from contamination by other bacteria, and conditional pathogens are destroyed in time. In the second phase, their level decreases, gestagens begin to dominate.

In addition, local and general immunity is reduced in case conception has occurred and the fetal egg, which is half alien to the woman, could be successfully implanted in the uterine wall. This leads to exacerbation of thrush, the development of gadnerelleza.

Thus, on the eve of menstruation, the likelihood of the appearance of unpleasant symptoms of bacterial vaginosis in a woman is higher due to the special hormonal background and physiological reduction of immunity.

Change in menstruation with the disease

The discharge during menstruation consists not only of the blood that is released from the vessels under the rejected inner layer of the uterus, but also from the functional endometrium, as well as the vaginal flora. After all, the discharge literally washes the vaginal mucosa, mixing with it. Therefore, in bacterial vaginosis, women may notice a change in the nature of the menstrual flow.

In the second phase and on the eve of menstruation, as well With the onset of spotting, the woman, in the presence of Gardnerella, will note the following:

  • The specific smell from the genital tract - in the literature is described as "fishy", someone reminds fresh, others rotten, some do not identify it that way, but simply note an unpleasant odor.

It can be noticed only by the sexual partner, for example, during oral sex, as well as the woman herself.

  • Increased secretion. In bacterial vaginosis, women often notice the appearance of "watery" discharge, transparent, sometimes moderately painful. Daily hygiene may not be enough to maintain hygiene.
  • Irritation of the genital area. Abundant discharge can lead to maceration, and then scratching the inner surface of the thighs, perineum, labia.

Useful video

See this video for the treatment of gardnerella disease:

Normally, highlighting before menstruation has a transparent texture, light color. But they can be brown, pink, green and even black. If there are additional signs, it can be a signal of serious health problems.

If there is a suspicion of Gardnerellosis, treatment should begin immediately. The scheme includes the use of suppositories, drugs with metronidazole. Doctors do not recommend using traditional methods for women.

Finding out the causes of the disease, it is necessary to delve into how to treat bacterial vaginosis. After all, the selection, as well as other diagnosed deviations from the norm do not give peace. The treatment will help candles and other medicines. Be sure to comply with prevention so that there is no recurrence.

An unpleasant smell during menstruation can occur both due to non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, peculiarities of the sebaceous glands, and due to diseases.

What are these bacteria?

Gardnerella vaginalis is a species related to anaerobic bacteria. The shape of small sticks with oval ends about 1.5 microns in size. In small quantities, it is not dangerous and is considered the norm. They make neither capsules nor spores.

When their number increases dramatically, dysbacteriosis begins. They release a lot of pyruvic acid and amino acids, which are used by the microflora of the vagina. Thus, Gardanerella increases the number and growth of anaerobic bacteria that increase the concentration of amines in the vagina. It can form not only diseases of women, but also men. Gardnerella can be:

  • Bacterial vaginosis.
  • Gardnerellosis of the urinary tract of men.
  • Gardnerellosis of the urinary tract of women.
  • Gardnerellosis pregnant.
  • Gardnerellosis of the upper genital tract.

Why do we need fermented milk bacteria?

Fermented milk bacteria (lactobacilli) produce the necessary substances that serve as protection for our body. Such substances include hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid, which helps to create the acidity of the environment in the vagina. Activates the protective functions of the immune system. Maintain a normal environment in the body and fight against dangerous microorganisms.

What factors can bring to dysbacteriosis?

Factors preceding the formation of dysbiosis are:

  • use of antibacterial drugs,
  • long use of intrauterine and medical contraceptives,
  • post urogenital complications
  • hormonal failure, accompanied by a violation of the monthly cycle,
  • weakening of immunity
  • radiation exposure,
  • nervous breakdowns and stress
  • microscopic abnormalities of the colon.

How to treat bacterial vaginosis?

In order to know how to treat bacterial vaginosis, you need to visit a doctor and do tests. To get rid of the problem - the best option would be to conduct local procedures. If bacterial vaginosis is very strong, then you can resort to drugs:

  • Metronidazole tablets that serve to eliminate microbes and normalize microflora. They are discharged with erosion of the cervix, cervicitis, gardendenellosis. It is accepted only for metronidazole-sensitive strains.
  • Similar properties have tablets Trichopolum, metrogyl. They can still be produced in the form of candles and tampons.
  • Clindamycin is an antibiotic that effectively eliminates bacterial infections:
  • ENT organs: pharyngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, sinusitis,
  • purulent skin inflammations,
  • encephalitis,
  • Gardnerellez and many others.
  • In addition to clindamycin, this group includes oleandomycin tablets, cephalosporins.
  • Fluomizin. It is used for various kinds of vaginitis, as well as in the form of rehabilitation before childbirth and various gynecological procedures and interventions.

In drawing up the treatment regimen, all complications and side effects must be considered. Often these complications can arise from the gastrointestinal tract, headaches, dizziness. As a side effect, intestinal dysbacteriosis may appear. In complicated cases, it is necessary to choose broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Therefore, the scheme should be in accordance with the problems of the patient.

After using tablets (especially antibiotics), vaginal candidiasis may begin as a side effect. Therefore, in the form of preventive measures prescribe such antifungal drugs as nystatin dose of 2000 mg per day in parallel with the start of therapy.

Very often non-pregnant women are prescribed the drug fluconazole. It consists of: fluconazole, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, water. This tool does a good job of eliminating:

  • cryptococcosis
  • candidiasis,
  • skin mycoses,
  • Candida skin lesions
  • Gardenernulosis.

During pregnancy, it is recommended: clotrimazole, pimafucin, gyno-pevaril, dafnedzhin and others.

In addition to the tableted therapy, there is also a means of local action. Local remedies include: 1% hydrogen peroxide, an antiseptic thymicide solution, benzalkonium chloride compounds. With the help of them irrigate the vaginal area.

How much the therapy will proceed positively depends on the disappearance of the symptoms of bacterial dysbacteriosis. After recovery, the first examination should be done after 7 days, the second - after a month and a half.

Modern medicine for the treatment of this disease secrete dalacin vaginal cream. It is used once a day for 3 days. One applicator is equal to one dose of the drug.

Also, Betadine is used as an antiseptic.

How to eat with garderellosis?

In order for the treatment to be more productive - follow a diet. If it is bad and wrong to eat, then it will be very difficult to get rid of the disease and your tests will remain bad for a long time.

What products need to be eliminated: spicy, spicy, fried, fatty. Eat boiled chicken and beef. Remove all carbonated and alcoholic beverages, spices.

Dairy products will be useful and necessary products: kefir, sour cream, ryazhenka, yoghurts, etc. See that all lactic acid products contain more lactic acid bacteria.

In the treatment of dysbacteriosis, the gastrointestinal tract is very much at risk. Therefore, to avoid complications, you need to take pills and capsules that improve the intestinal microflora. These include: Linex, Bifidumbacterin. To strengthen the immune system, be sure to drink a course of multivitamin preparations.

How to treat bacterial vaginosis with folk methods?

With the recently begun dysbacteriosis, home treatment will be more appropriate than ever. Usually therapy consists of the use of infusions, douching. In composition, they are different, but in the method of preparation and reception they are the same. Folk methods can completely eliminate dysbacteriosis.

To prepare a remedy for vaginosis, all herbs in equal proportions should be thoroughly crushed or ground. In the resulting dry mixture in the amount of 2 tablespoons pour a liter of boiling water and put to insist overnight.

Reception means is carried out in an amount of half a glass in 20-30 minutes before meals, 3-4 times a day.

To make douching at home it is necessary to divide the cooked herbs into equal parts, grind. Then one spoonful of the collection is poured with a liter of boiling water and insist night. Take 3-4 times 200 ml per syringe.

It is best to combine broths and douching. The course of therapy lasts about 3 months, with a break of 2 weeks. For complete recovery, it is necessary to be treated for 1-1.5 years. Be sure to pass the control and do tests every 3-4 months. If there is no improvement after the use of traditional methods, then you should consult a doctor who will select the necessary medical therapy for you.

Recipe number 3. Infusion of walnut leaves

1 tablespoon of raw materials pour a glass of boiling water. Insist for half an hour, strain and drink for the whole day. The duration of therapy is 3 weeks.

The same principle can be made infusion of red clover, celandine. You can leave a little infusion for washing the vagina.

Conifers will also be useful in treating this disease. Brew pine and spruce needles in a glass of boiling water. Then half drink half leave for watering.

Complications

Complications can occur in the form of inflammation of the female appendages, infertility, problems during pregnancy and childbirth.

If adnexid occurs, then pain begins in the lower abdomen and ovaries, fever. Therapy should be only a gynecologist, because a strong inflammatory process of the appendages can lead to the formation of cysts and adhesions between the ovary and the fallopian tube. This can lead to infertility. In order to avoid unforeseen consequences, it is necessary to promptly consult a doctor who will make proper tests and diagnose.

The tests that are needed to determine bacterial vaginosis:

  • Analysis of the change in acid-base balance.
  • Microscopic analysis.
  • Analysis of the amino test.

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