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Causes of postmenopausal cervical dilatation

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Determining the state of the cervix is ​​a mandatory element of the gynecological examination. Such an examination can reveal not only a variety of pathological changes in the mucous membrane, but also an expansion of the cervical canal.

This symptom in some cases is a formidable sign of current pathological processes, although sometimes it is considered as a component of natural changes in the reproductive system. Therefore, the isolated conclusion about the presence of dilatation of the cervical canal is not a clear cause for alarm. It must be assessed in relation to a specific clinical situation.

Cervical canal - what is it and what is its function?

The cervical canal (canalis cervicis uteri) is a natural linear space inside the cervix that connects the uterine cavity with the lumen of the vagina. Under normal conditions, it has a spindle shape due to 2 physiological terminal narrowings. They are called the outer and inner throat.

The cervical canal is lined with a special cylindrical epithelium, which performs a barrier and secretory function. The mucus produced by its cells contains a large amount of glycoproteins and is essentially a hydrogel with a finely porous structure. Moreover, its consistency, acidity and permeability are not constant, but change depending on the hormonal background of the woman, the day of her cycle and a number of other factors.

The cervical canal performs several functions:

Mucus contained in the lumen of the canal is a natural obstacle in the path of bacteria and viruses, forming a "plug" and thereby preventing ascending infection of the uterine cavity. In addition, there is a local immune system in cervical tissues that provides additional protection against most microorganisms. It is represented by immunocompetent cells, humoral factors and antibodies produced by them. Thanks to the neck, the uterine cavity maintains its sterility.

  • Creating a selectively acting barrier to sperm

The hormonal background that changes during the ovarian-menstrual cycle affects the acidity and viscosity of cervical mucus, which has a regulating effect on male germ cells. Before ovulation, the mucus plug dilutes, its pores increase in diameter, the pH becomes alkaline, and the cervical canal slightly opens. All this creates favorable conditions for the penetration of sperm from the vagina into the uterus. And the pristeno current of mucus that arises during this period is a factor that makes it possible to “sift out” functionally incomplete male sex cells that are not capable of progressive targeted movement.

  • Removal of menstrual and postpartum discharge from the uterus

The cervix is ​​a natural and the only way to evacuate blood, rejected endometrium, physiological and pathological secrets. Violation of its patency leads to the accumulation of secretions, the progressive expansion of the uterus with a throwing of the contents into the fallopian tubes, provokes an inflammatory process.

  • Formation of the birth canal, ensuring the natural expulsion of the fetus, its membranes and the detached placenta

This is ensured by the expansion, shortening and centralization of the position of the cervix during contractions in the 1st generic period.

The cervical canal is often considered as a special anatomical formation, paying special attention to it when examining a woman.

What does it mean - the cervical canal is enlarged?

Normally, in an adult woman who has not given birth with sufficiently developed genital organs, the length of the cervical canal is 3.5-4.5 cm on average, and the diameter in the widest part does not exceed 8 mm. Its outer mouth has a rounded shape and a diameter of 5-6 mm. And after childbirth in a natural way, it takes a slit-like shape with several radially diverging traces of tears of tissues along the edges and is no longer so tightly closed.

The permissible width of the lumen of the cervical canal outside the process of labor activity is up to 8 mm. Increasing the diameter above this indicator is the basis for the diagnosis of expansion (dilation). This is complemented by shortening the cervix, which is sometimes used as an independent criterion.

Closed cervical canal - the norm during pregnancy until the onset of labor. About its expansion with excess of the average sizes speak in several cases:

  • there is an extension of the internal os to 2 mm and more already at the end of the first trimester of gestation, with the normal diameter of the remaining sections of the cervical canal,
  • the cervical canal is slit-like widened in the upper third, with a significant increase in the number of cervical glands often observed,
  • there is a funnel-shaped deformation of the internal os, when performing 3D-ultrasound and sufficient specialist skills, it is often possible to fix the prolapation of the fetal membranes,
  • expansion of the canal throughout, with a simultaneous decrease in the length of the cervix, its softening.

Diagnostics

It is usually not possible to confirm the presence of a dilation during a routine basic gynecological examination, with the exception of cases of external pharynx. For reliable diagnosis methods require intravital imaging, and ultrasound is usually sufficient. In this case, preference is given to the vaginal sensor, although it is possible to use a normal transabdominal one. Measuring the cervix during an ultrasound scan is called cervicometry.

A more accurate imaging method is MRI of the pelvic organs. Of course, this technique is not used for the initial diagnosis of cervical pathology. MRI is performed at the second stage of the examination of the patient, to reliably determine the nature of her changes.

Smear analysis during dilatation of the cervical canal is an additional diagnostic method that allows to confirm the presence of the inflammatory process and determine its nature. To exclude STDs as the cause of cervicitis, serological testing of blood for major infections is performed.

Why is this dangerous?

If the cervical canal is expanded in the absence of pregnancy, this does not represent an immediate danger to the woman’s life. But such a dilatation is a symptom of various pathological processes in the cervix or the body of the uterus, which requires adequate diagnosis and timely full-fledged treatment.

The expansion of the cervical canal during pregnancy is definitely a pathological sign. It can be a manifestation of:

  • Threatening spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy. At the same time, in addition to the expansion of the cervical canal on ultrasound, there are signs of pathological hypertonus of the uterus. It can also be revealed that the onset of detachment of the ovum with retrochorial hematoma, while maintaining the viability of the embryo.
  • Cervical insufficiency, which is diagnosed from the 2nd trimeter of pregnancy. Additional diagnostic ultrasound signs of such a condition are a funnel-shaped expansion of the internal os, a decrease in the length of the cervix for a period of less than 20 weeks to 3 cm, a decrease in the ratio of the length of the cervix to its diameter (at the level of the internal os) of less than 1.5. Istmic-cervical insufficiency is the cause of habitual miscarriage.
  • Abortion is common or incomplete spontaneous abortion (in early pregnancy), preterm labor begins (after 26 weeks of gestation).

Therefore, if during pregnancy pregnancy dilatation of the cervical canal is diagnosed, it is necessary for the doctor to decide as soon as possible with the treatment tactics and evaluate the feasibility of the patient’s urgent hospitalization.

The main causes of pathology

Why is the cervical canal expanded? There are many reasons for this condition:

  1. The threat of abortion.
  2. Polyp of the cervical canal.
  3. Cystic lesion of the cervix (the so-called Nabotoff cyst), usually with anechoic contents. It can be multiple small cysts up to 1 mm in diameter.
  4. Other benign tumor formation of the cervix. Fibromyomas, sarcomas, hemangiomas, leiomyomas are possible.
  5. High-grade adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  6. Endometrial fibroid or polyp.
  7. Endometriosis, adenomyosis.
  8. Acute or chronic cervicitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal), including developing due to STDs.
  9. Tumors of the body of the uterus of significant size, leading to stretching of the internal pharynx.

In women of reproductive age, an expansion of up to 12 mm or more may occur for some time after a spontaneous or medical abortion, in the recovery period after delivery, after therapeutic and diagnostic interventions with cervical dilatation.

In menopause, the dilatation may be due to progressive atrophy of the uterine tissue in the presence of a pronounced estrogen deficiency. In this case, usually the cervical canal is expanded unevenly, possibly concomitant omission of the vaginal or uterus. And as the process of the age-related involution of the reproductive system progresses in the post-menopausal period, the dilatation is replaced by a narrowing to 3 mm or less, and subsequent atresia (fusion).

What to do?

Therapeutic tactics are determined by the main cause of cervical changes.

Obstetric pessary on the cervix to prevent its opening

In the presence of polyps and tumors, the question of surgical treatment is resolved, while in women of reproductive age, organ-preserving operations are preferred. The exception is adenocarcinoma. In this case, with extensive lesions and signs of malignancy with germination in the surrounding tissues, a decision can be made about radical intervention with the extirpation of the uterus and subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy in accordance with the principles of treatment of cervical cancer.

In cervicitis and endocervical cysts, conservative therapy using systemic and local antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs is indicated. Moreover, in the case of confirmed STDs, it is carried out under the supervision of a dermatovenerologist, with simultaneous treatment of all sexual partners and an examination of family members. The woman in the future should be on the dynamic account and regularly pass control tests for STDs and HIV.

In case of confirmed adenomyosis, the therapy is carried out in accordance with the current clinical guidelines. Usually they start with a comprehensive conservative treatment using hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs. As ancillary measures prescribed physiotherapy, absorbable means, vitamins. With widespread and not amenable to conservative therapy of adenomyosis, surgical treatment is indicated.

The revealed expansion of the cervical canal on ultrasound during pregnancy is the basis for an urgent solution to the issue of hospitalization of a pregnant woman in connection with threatened abortion or premature birth. They prescribe hormonal preparations, antispasmodics, magnesium preparations and other tocolytics, carry out prevention of placental insufficiency. In the case of diagnosed isthmic-cervical insufficiency and a history of miscarriages, additional measures are taken to strengthen the cervix.

  • The imposition of special seams on the neck, which are removed for a period of 38 weeks. Currently, different methods of suturing are used with approximately equal performance, the choice of method remains for the doctor.
  • Installation of a pessary - a special latex ring that is worn on the cervix to prevent its opening. Perhaps only in the early stages of cervical insufficiency, sometimes in addition to suturing.
  • On average, in the presence of isthmic-cervical insufficiency, pregnancy is possible to pass on in 2/3 of cases.

Enlargement of the cervical canal is an important diagnostic finding that requires a comprehensive assessment of a woman’s condition and the search for the main cause of such a dilation. Pathology requires special attention in pregnant women, as it is a sign of a high risk of interruption of the current pregnancy. Regular check-ups and visits to an obstetrician-gynecologist, an ultrasound scan on a doctor's prescription allows you to diagnose this pathology in a timely manner and select the optimal treatment with minimal losses for the patient.

Cervical canal - where does it lead?

The cervical canal is the inner part of the cervix, which is the transition between the main female organ and the vagina. It is covered with a layer of epithelium that has the ability to secrete mucus. Its number and composition are different, depending on the period of the menstrual cycle.

The most liquid and minimal these secretions are during ovulation, when the body creates the most favorable opportunities for fertilization of the female germ cell. The rest of the time, the mucus is thick enough, and the maximum amount is before menstruation.

In women of reproductive age, the cervical canal is 7–8 mm wide. This is sufficient for the penetration of sperm, removal of menstrual flow, some of which constitute the secret secreted by its epithelium.

Changes in menopause

How are menopause and cervical canal connected? The fact that the reproductive system is undergoing changes during this period has already been said. Not an exception and this small area. It changes under the influence of a new hormonal balance, like all reproductive organs, that is, decreases.

The decrease in estrogen and progestin is reflected on the uterus in such a way that its muscle tissue atrophies, replacing the connective tissue, the vessels narrow. The body is reduced so much that in comparison with what it was before menopause, it becomes one and a half times smaller. Accordingly, the dimensions of the cervical canal in menopause are:

For some, the latter value may be even more modest due to the process of tissue overgrowing. Thinning epithelium also produces much less mucus, which in many cases leads to a dry vagina.

The biological meaning of the change is clear: the woman is no longer threatened to become a mother, therefore, she does not need a passage in the uterus for sperm and menstrual flow.

Changes in the cervical canal with menopause caused by hormonal imbalance

The reasons for the increased size of the cervical canal

It is necessary to monitor gynecological health during menopause more carefully than before. This is a time of activation of many diseases, among which are deadly.

In some, during the examination, it is found that the space leading from the uterus into the vagina is abnormally large. This is a reason to worry, because the expanded cervical canal in menopause means one of the gynecological diseases. The most innocuous of them is inflammation of the cervix.

Serosometer

Because of the new hormonal background that is unusual for the organism, the ability to restore the uterine lining is impaired. It degrades, which is natural, but this process may be accompanied by the release and accumulation of fluid in the organ cavity. And this is no longer normal.

In addition to gynecological diseases, the formation of water-slimy masses can be stimulated:

  • Hormone replacement therapy. Most drugs contain estrogens, which relieve severe manifestations of menopause, but can also cause side effects,
  • Smoking. Nicotine gums aggravate hormonal failure, which causes the uterine lining to degrade even more,
  • Inadequate age food, that is, an abundance of fat. They are deposited "in reserve", also enhancing hormonal imbalance,
  • Avoiding physical activity. Being afraid of osteoporosis, being lazy, a woman minimizes the load, which further disrupts metabolic processes. It affects the uterine lining in the most negative way.

A woman observes a gray liquid discharge, especially after sex, feels discomfort and pain in the abdomen, difficulty urinating.

Uterine fibroids - one of the reasons for the expansion of the cervical canal during menopause

As a rule, fibroids are detected before the onset of menopause and postpones it for 2-3 years. But for some, this benign tumor appears after ovarian fading, the cessation of menstruation.

Contribute to its occurrence at the age of reducing the amount of estrogen:

  • Overweight,
  • Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism,
  • Stress, which is frequent maintenance of menopause, especially its first half,
  • Thyroid pathologies, often occurring in women over 50,
  • Previous abortions, complicated childbirth.

Fibroids can also be caused by serosometers. If there is an expansion of the cervical canal during menopause, watery discharge from time to time is noticed, even without blood, it makes sense to do an ultrasound and check the thickness of the endometrium. Myoma at this age is often combined with other gynecological pathologies.

This benign neoplasm consists of several layers of the endometrium that linger in one of the uterus regions. Скачки гормонов, которые бывают в пременопаузе, способствуют его появлению, как и

  • Diabetes,
  • Гипертония,
  • Ожирение,
  • Psychological problems,
  • Disorders of the thyroid gland.

These causes are manifestations of severe menopause. Therefore, a polyp can also be found in those who have not been bothered by this before. In some cases, he does not hint about himself for quite a long time. And only during the ultrasound examination, the specialist will notice both the neoplasm and the enlarged cervical canal.

We recommend reading the article about the difference between menopause and pregnancy. You will learn about the difference in the composition of hormones produced, the sensations of a woman, the possibility of applying a pregnancy test.

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia causes dilatation of the cervical canal

Enlargement of the cervical canal can occur in postmenopausal women due to abnormal proliferation of endometrial-like cells. It would seem that in this period, when estrogen from the body almost disappeared, this should not be. After all, these hormones, if they are in abundance, feed the hyperplastic process.

But the growth of tissues is often facilitated by illnesses that are often observed during menopause:

  • High blood pressure,
  • Excess weight,
  • Diabetes,
  • Liver disease.

Acceptance of estrogen-containing drugs that help the body adapt to the new composition of hormones can also increase the risk of the occurrence of the disease.

Hyperplasia can occur hidden or manifest bleeding, daubs. Often it is combined with endometrial polyps and cysts. But even with asymptomatic flow it can be found using ultrasound. The endometrium will be thickened, and the space inside the neck will be enlarged.

In another case, a curable disease can turn into an oncological one. The more neglected the process, the more problematic the recovery is even after the uterus is removed. You can avoid danger, if once a year to do an ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

We recommend reading the article on postmenopausal cervical dilatation. You will learn about the causes of change in menopause and the consequences.

Climax, if it proceeds with mild symptoms, often leads to complications at a late stage. . Along with them, it is necessary to expand the cervical canal and excretion of secretions, use.

Climax. Cervical ectopia of the cervix and chronic cervicitis. The cervix is ​​a very vulnerable place due to its location. . Enlargement of the cervical canal in postmenopausal women.

The tumor is able to localize anywhere inside the uterus, but if it blocks the cervical canal, it also signals itself about the pain caused by retention inside the mucus. Spotting after menopause can.

Endometrial hyperplasia with menopause, this is its abnormal distribution deep into the layers of the uterus. . The adherence of some parts of the uterus, the appearance of fluid in the cavity due to the partial narrowing of the canal of its cervix is ​​also acceptable.

This is due to the increase in fat cells, and the diet and lifestyle does not change. . Premenopause is the period before menopause, which. Thyroid gland with menopause: causes of hyperfunction.

Causes of postmenopausal cervical dilatation

Climax - a time of obvious changes that are more affecting the reproductive organs. They are often accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, but in general have a natural character.

True, among these changes may appear strange and undesirable. Not everyone will understand what the expansion of the cervical canal in postmenopausal means. After all, before the menstruation came, many women did not worry about its size.

What does it mean: the cervical canal is expanded

The cervical canal of the cervix is ​​located along the entire length inside the cervix, which acts as a corridor between the slit-like cavity of the uterus and the vagina. The development of this body ends with the full puberty of girls.

Before pregnancy, the canal performs a more protective function against the introduction of pathogenic microorganisms into the uterus during menstruation. It is through him that the menstrual blood passes.

The role of protection in it is performed by mucus secreted through a layer of epithelial cells, which is lined with the entire passage from the vagina to the uterine cavity.

Since during the menstruation the cervical canal is enlarged, the production of mucus during this period is the most maximal.

The dimensions of the cervical canal change during different periods of life. In women of childbearing age, but not yet giving birth, during menstruation, the channel is widened only to 2 mm.

Closer to the age of 20–25, the woman’s body prepares for its main purpose, and all reproductive organs increase slightly in size.

The main thing before planning a pregnancy is to conduct an ultrasound to know exactly the anatomical structure of the reproductive organs.

For the cervical canal, the length and diameter are important because it will affect the passage of the baby through the birth canal in the future. Any deviation from the norm can cause severe complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

What is the role of the cervical canal during pregnancy?

The cervical canal during conception and pregnancy has its own anatomical features.

At the time of conception, mucus in the cervical canal becomes thicker in order to hold spermatozoa in themselves for their safe movement into the uterine cavity.

With the successful fertilization of the ovum, the cervix narrows as much as possible, at the exit into the vagina a dense cork of mucus is formed, which protects the fetus from various infections and viruses that enter the woman's body from the external environment.

Mucous plug first departs before childbirth. If this does not happen, it is removed during childbirth.

In the first trimester of pregnancy, importance is attached to the length and width of the cervical canal when diagnosed by ultrasound. The latter figure indicates the threat of miscarriage, therefore, if the cervical canal is enlarged, the woman is sent to the hospital.

Expansion of muscle tissue occurs during this period because the cervix is ​​weak and can not independently hold the attached fetus in the future. This deviation from the norm occurs in the 15-18 week of pregnancy, when the child in the womb develops intensively.

Narrowing of the cervical canal can be carried out during pregnancy only in full confidence in the viability of the unborn child.

The procedure is carried out in the hospital either with medication, or using a medical ring (pessary), which is applied to the canal, and is not removed almost until the end of pregnancy. In some cases, the cervix is ​​operatively stitched, which is removed at 38 weeks gestation.

Polyps as a cause of cervical dilatation

If a polyp expansion is detected in the diagnosis of the cervix, it is recommended to first cure the disease before planning pregnancy. Conception with this disease is difficult, because the polyp blocks the lumen and prevents sperm from entering the uterus.

The appearance of a polyp during pregnancy in the canal can cause relaxation of the walls of the cervix and pose a threat to the life of the child. Of course, during pregnancy, the polyp is not removed, they continue only to monitor it.

If the cervical canal is expanded to 3-5 mm in the diagnosis of a polyp, the woman is sent to the hospital for preservation under the constant supervision of doctors.

Some polyps disappear after childbirth.

If this does not happen, the treatment is continued immediately after the birth of the child.

The first sign of an enlarged canal is the appearance of small blood discharge from the vagina. It is necessary to immediately contact a gynecologist to take measures in time to prevent miscarriage.

What gynecological diseases cause dilation of the cervix?

Like all reproductive organs, the cervical canal of the cervix also undergoes a change during the hormonal adjustment of the body during menopause. The walls of the cervix lose their elasticity, less produce mucus, with the result that the vagina becomes dry.

With the onset of menopause in women, the diseases that occur on the background of postponed abortions, catarrhal diseases of the genital area and curettage after childbirth become acute.

Diseases such as fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts - all this causes hormonal failure and irregular bleeding. The uterus loses its tone, relaxes the muscular muscles.

With each bleeding, the cervical canal expands, and devoid of mucus causes microflora to enter the uterus, which only aggravates existing diseases.

The cervical canal can also be expanded due to an increase in myometrial thickness as a result of the proliferation of cells in endometriosis. This contributes to the various ailments that are present during the period of menopause: pressure jumps, overweight, diabetes, thyroid gland.

Another disease that causes dilation of the cervical canal is chronic cervicitis. This disease occurs as a result of colds and untreated inflammation.

It is advisable not to ignore the liquid mucous secretions, including those that occur after sex or urination.

Changes in the internal state of the uterus can occur as a result of side effects after taking hormonal drugs, reducing metabolic processes and smoking.

Actions for cervical dilation

If the diagnosis is made by ultrasound, do not panic. Only a timely visit to the doctor will help diagnose the cause of the expansion of the cervical canal. This condition is correctable if the causes of the change in the organ from the norm are eliminated.

The main thing is to monitor the state of your body, especially for women entering a period of menopause, or who are preparing to become a mother in the future.

What is a cervical dilatation?

The cervical canal is the cervical canal that connects the vagina and the uterine cavity. It has a spindle shape. In order to gain access to the uterine cavity, the doctor performs a procedure for dilating the cervical canal.

Normally, the cervical canal is tightly closed in order to prevent infection in the uterus. The surface of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is lined with a cylindrical epithelium, which produces mucus. It has a porous structure, fills the cervix, forming a kind of cork.

The viscosity of mucus and pore size depend on the level of hormones. During the ovulation period, the viscosity decreases, and the pore size increases, this contributes to the passage of sperm. The current of mucus is directed outward, it is more pronounced along the periphery, it helps to “filter” full-fledged sperm.

During pregnancy, the cervical canal is tightly closed, it changes its color, it becomes bluish. Before birth, it expands and can reach up to 10 cm in diameter.

To examine the uterus, the gynecologist uses the method of hysteroscopy, as the most informative for diagnosis and treatment.

It allows you to detect pathology inside the uterus, to diagnose, perform targeted biopsy or surgery (for example, abortion).

Hysteroscopy is always preceded by a manual study to determine the location of the uterus and its size. Then the cervical canal is expanded.

The expansion of the cervical canal for inspection of the uterine cavity is carried out as follows. The patient should be in a special gynecological chair. The vagina and perineum are treated with special disinfectants as before surgery.

After a manual examination, the doctor exposes the cervix using mirrors. Manipulation begins with the capture of the anterior lip of the cervix with forceps. Then the uterus is probed to determine the size and direction.

After that, the cervical canal is gradually expanded to 8 mm with special instruments-dilators. This is followed by hysteroscopy.

If the purpose of dilation of the cervical canal is curettage, an acute curette is inserted into the cavity of the uterus to the bottom of the cavity. Further, by successive movements of the tool back and forth, scraping the walls of the uterus is carried out to obtain the greatest number of scrapings.

After that, the cervix is ​​treated with a special solution. Curettage is performed to stop dysfunctional uterine bleeding and to remove the maximum amount of hyperplastic and necrotized endometrium for further histological examination.

This procedure leads to the cessation of heavy bleeding for several months.

Scraping the uterus is one of the most frequently performed medical procedures in modern gynecology. It can be produced for a variety of reasons, for diagnostic purposes or as part of therapeutic interventions. In this case, the doctor with the help of a special tool removes the surface layer of the endometrium, i.e., scrapes it. In itself, the removal of the mucous membrane from the inner walls of the uterus is not unusual. In a healthy woman at a productive age, this happens every month and manifests itself in the form of menstrual bleeding, when pieces of exfoliated endometrium are taken out with blood. But sometimes there is a need for so-called gynecological curettage, as a result of which the epithelial layer is removed by a doctor with the help of a special tool - a curette. Most often, curettage is performed for diagnostic purposes, for example, if a woman complains for a long time of severe bleeding, the cause of which cannot be determined with the help of a routine examination. The procedure is usually accompanied by examination of the uterus with another gynecological device - a hysteroscope. The result of this diagnosis is the detection of the cause of bleeding, which may be hormonal disorders, fibroids, polyps, as well as malignant neoplasms of the body or cervix. Gynecological curettage with heavy bleeding can also become a kind of therapeutic measure. For example, in the case of a too prolonged monthly cycle, when the endometrium grows so strong that the usual amount of blood released during menstruation is insufficient to remove it. Quite often, cleaning is prescribed after a miscarriage, because, despite the heavy bleeding, the female body is not always able to get rid of the overgrown mucous membrane, the remnants of which can lead to an inflammatory process, fraught with negative consequences. And the usual abortion, performed for up to 12 weeks, can also be called gynecological curettage, with the only difference that during the procedure not only the endometrium is removed from the uterus, but also the embryo. Scraping is done, as a rule, under anesthesia. The doctor places the patient on the gynecological chair, treats the external genitals with a disinfectant solution, after which with the help of special dilators opens the cervix. The curette is a spoon with sharp edges. With its help, the gynecologist step by step scrapes the mucous membrane. This procedure is simple and takes from 5 to 10 minutes. Contraindications to it, by and large, does not exist, with the exception of perhaps the ongoing desired pregnancy. But do not forget that, in any case, cleaning is a small, but nevertheless surgical operation, which means it may have risks associated with anesthesia, for example, an allergic reaction to drugs. Hysteroscopy is a procedure in which a special telescopic instrument with backlight is used - a hysteroscope. The device has a fiber-optic system that allows you to transfer an image from the cervical canal and the uterine cavity to the monitor.

Hysteroscopy is prescribed for the treatment and diagnosis of uterus pathologies. With the help of diagnostic hysteroscopy, you can see any pathological changes: adhesions, fibroids, polyps, partitions located in the uterine cavity. Also, the doctor can diagnose a dysfunctional cause of uterine bleeding, miscarriage, infertility. Surgical hysteroscopy allows correction of diagnosed pathologies. Through the hysteroscope, the doctor introduces additional tools, with the help of which he carries out various manipulations that eliminate the pathology. Surgical hysteroscopy allows you to remove adhesions, polyps, myomatous nodes, to carry out the dissection of partitions. Often, surgery is performed immediately during a diagnostic examination.

Manipulations using a hysteroscope are significantly better, which distinguishes them from blind curettage. The doctor visually sees the entire uterine cavity and the cervical canal, carries out the operation, purposefully eliminating the pathology.

Indications for hysteroscopy are: any pathological causes that need to be diagnosed and treated, infertility caused by scars or adhesions, dysfunctional bleeding, painful menstruation, intermenstrual bleeding. Also for hysteroscopy include: scanty and irregular menstruation, miscarriage, pregnancy, pain in the pelvic area, the presence of polyps, myomas.

Therapeutic hysteroscopy is performed under general anesthesia. The procedure does not make any cuts. Пациентке через шейку матки вводят тонкий стержень, на котором закреплена видеокамера и осветительный прибор.

Through the hysteroscope, the doctor introduces a laser or other medical devices necessary for carrying out certain manipulations. To expand the uterus is used saline or carbon dioxide.

The whole procedure takes from 5 to 60 minutes, it depends on what manipulations the doctor performs.

In most cases, during the hysteroscopy, hospitalization of the patient is not required. In exceptional cases, an inpatient hospital will require no more than one night. The patient can begin the usual activities just the next day after surgery.

What is a cervical dilatation?

The cervical canal is expanded what does this mean

The cervical canal is the junction of the uterus and vagina, located in the cervix. In the middle part, the canal is usually expanded to 7-8 millimeters, from above it is narrowed and passes into the isthmus of the uterus, through which it is on one side communicating with the uterus.

On the other hand, the cervical canal ends with the vagina and this part is called the pharynx. Its shape can be very different. The size of the throat and its shape depend on various factors, namely, the age and hormonal background of the woman, the nature of the birth. In women who have not given birth, the pharynx is small and rounded, while those who have given birth have a wide, resembling gap.

The cervical canal is usually filled with secretions; it is secreted by mucosal cells. The mucosa consists, for the most part, of a cylindrical epithelium, which is also characterized by increased secretory activity.

To increase the area of ​​the mucous membrane and, accordingly, the volume of mucus secreted, there are folds on it. Otherwise they are called - crypts.

The amount of secreted secretion depends on both epithelial cells and a certain number of glands in the mucosa.

It looks like a thick, glassy, ​​viscous mucus that has an alkaline reaction. It completely fills the channel and forms the so-called Kristeller stopper. Mucus has bactericidal properties and its main function is to protect the uterus from bacteria penetration.

The amount of secreted secretions has its effect and the menstrual cycle. Depending on its stage, the consistency and composition of the mucous secretion changes. During and before ovulation, its amount increases, it becomes viscous, the mucus reaction is neutral. Most often, the secret has a high viscosity, because of what sperm is very difficult to get into the uterus.

The consistency of mucus depends on the amount of sex hormones in the blood. If the concentration of progesterone is high and that of estrogen is low, then the secret of the cervical canal will be viscous.

The situation changes in the follicular phase of the cycle, when the amount of estrogen increases, the amount of fluid secreted by the cells of the channel increases and the secret becomes less viscous. But this phase does not last long, such conditions for the life of spermatozoa are maintained all day 2-3, then the cervical mucus again becomes viscous.

It is during this period that some of the sperm can penetrate into the uterus, and then into the fallopian tubes. Subsequently, the sperm have the opportunity to successfully fertilize the female reproductive cell. In addition, they are stored longer in the cervical canal, since the composition of mucus is suitable for their normal existence.

Passing through the cervical canal is, to some extent, a test of endurance and vitality for sperm, because only the most mobile and healthy can overcome all obstacles.

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The study of physical and chemical parameters of secretion is of great importance in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. because with the normalization of indicators a woman may think about pregnancy.

In addition, the quality of the secret is also influenced by various hormonal disorders, contraceptives, infectious and inflammatory diseases, in which mucus changes and prevents sperm from penetrating into the uterine cavity.

After conception, the amount of the hormone progesterone in the blood rises again and the secret in the cervical canal becomes more viscous and durable. During the entire period of pregnancy, the canal is blocked with a plug of mucus that protects the placenta and fetus from microbes from the vagina.

The muscular membrane of the cervical canal, located under the mucous membrane, is a continuation of the muscles of the uterus, its feature is that it is not so strongly developed and contains less elastic fibers. This difference allows the cervix to easily stretch and open the birth canal at birth.

Examination of the cervical canal in patients is carried out with the help of special gynecological mirrors, which provide access for examination. A healthy woman in the canal area always has a transparent mucous secret. If any changes and pathologies are detected, women are recommended to undergo an additional examination. It can be :

· Laboratory tests to identify the causative agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics,

· Pap smear. With it, you will see various changes in the structure of epithelial cells. This method makes it possible to detect precancerous diseases and oncology in the early stages.

· Colposcopy - research using a special optical device called a colposcope.

Routine examination by a doctor; all women should be taken annually. It is necessary for the timely detection of various diseases in the early stages.

Why spend the expansion of the cervical canal

Normally, the cervical canal is tightly closed in order to prevent infection in the uterus. The surface of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is lined with a cylindrical epithelium, which produces mucus. It has a porous structure, fills the cervix, forming a kind of cork. The viscosity of mucus and pore size depend on the level of hormones.

During the ovulation period, the viscosity decreases, and the pore size increases, this contributes to the passage of sperm. The current of mucus is directed outward, it is more pronounced along the periphery, it helps to “filter” full-fledged sperm. During pregnancy, the cervical canal is tightly closed, it changes its color, it becomes bluish.

Before birth, it expands and can reach up to 10 cm in diameter.

To examine the uterus, the gynecologist uses the method of hysteroscopy, as the most informative for diagnosis and treatment.

It allows you to detect pathology inside the uterus, to diagnose, perform targeted biopsy or surgery (for example, abortion).

Hysteroscopy is always preceded by a manual study to determine the location of the uterus and its size. Then the cervical canal is expanded.

How is the expansion of the cervical canal

The expansion of the cervical canal for inspection of the uterine cavity is carried out as follows. The patient should be in a special gynecological chair. The vagina and perineum are treated with special disinfectants as before surgery.

After a manual examination, the doctor exposes the cervix using mirrors. Manipulation begins with the capture of the anterior lip of the cervix with forceps. Then the uterus is probed to determine the size and direction.

After that, the cervical canal is gradually expanded to 8 mm with special instruments-dilators. This is followed by hysteroscopy.

If the purpose of dilation of the cervical canal is curettage, an acute curette is inserted into the cavity of the uterus to the bottom of the cavity. Further, by successive movements of the tool back and forth, scraping the walls of the uterus is carried out to obtain the greatest number of scrapings.

After that, the cervix is ​​treated with a special solution. Curettage is performed to stop dysfunctional uterine bleeding and to remove the maximum amount of hyperplastic and necrotized endometrium for further histological examination.

This procedure leads to the cessation of heavy bleeding for several months.

Enlarged cervical canal

Chronic diseases: not listed

Good day! A couple of weeks ago it happened to be very cold. Upon arrival, I went to transvaginal Uzi for inflammatory processes. I drink jazz. Long. Uzi was on the 13th day of the cycle. Ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes - without deviations. But the doctor-Uzi noticed that the cervical canal was enlarged by 4 mm.

What could be the reason - did not say! In a smear on the neck a lot of leukocytes (cover everything in sight), cells of the squamous epithelium, coca, and. T.P. None. I haven't gone to the doctor yet, waiting for the recording.

Tell me, what can this extension be connected with? With inflammation? I also have a pulling discomfort in the lower abdomen, as if menstruation is about to begin. Thank!

expansion of the cervical canal causes

Related and Recommended Questions

Cervical canal I am concerned about the question, was on the ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the doctor said.

Decoding transvaginal ultrasound Transvaginal ultrasound of the uterus size 48 mm.

The cervical canal is enlarged. I plan to try conception in the next cycle. Tell me.

The results of the ultrasound Doctor! Comment, please, ultrasound, did on day 10 of the cycle.

What does the result of ultrasound of the uterus Results of ultrasound from 08.07. The uterus is visualized.

Ultrasound of the uterus and appendages MATKA, enlarged, rounded forms dimensions 70 * 42 * 51 / normal to.

Explanation of the ultrasound on the 22nd day of the cycle For 4 years, took birth control pills.

Jazz blocks it, but sometimes the cervical canal is able to react in the same way while taking COCS.

By the way, do not exclude the question that Jazz was of poor quality, for example, a fake-picture of an ultrasound you didn’t bring, perhaps, in the ovaries there are also changes indicating ovulation and then the question is cleared.

If everything is calm in the ovaries, but the cervical canal is also enlarged in the following days, then inflammation is also possible, and the same picture will be on the background of the approaching withdrawal bleeding (at the end of the intake cycle).

What is the cervical canal?

In fact, most women have only a general idea of ​​the structure of their reproductive system. And the fact that such a cervical canal (expanded or not, you will tell the gynecologist), most of the fair sex do not even think. But this organ of the reproductive system plays a very important role in the body.

The cervical cavity has a rather interesting structure. It represents a hollow canal, which can be compared with a spindle having two constrictions at the ends. This cavity is located in the area of ​​the uterus, and has a length of about four to five centimeters. However, if a woman gave birth or had an abortion, then the cervical canal can be extended to seven to eight centimeters. In some cases it can be extended. The cervical canal is the connection between the uterus and the vagina.

The inner surface of the cavity consists of epithelial cells that produce a special mucous secretion. This tissue consists of special receptors that can respond to the level of hormones in the body. That is why the number and viscosity of menstrual mucus depend on what phase of the woman's menstrual cycle for a given period of time.

As you know, determining pregnancy in a very short time is not always an easy task. However, an experienced doctor can determine the color of the mucous. If fertilization occurs, it usually takes on a bluish tinge.

Expanded cervical canal or not, can be determined only when visiting a gynecologist. The doctor inserts a mirror into the vagina, and thus examines the entrance to the cavity. If the girl has not yet given birth, then the entrance will look like a small dot. But in a woman who has given birth, it will turn into a small gap.

Barrier and protective function

It is in this place that special mucus is produced, which serves as an excellent barrier against various bacteria and viruses that enter the body from the outside. Such mucus is able to form a plug that provides reliable protection. However, this cavity has its own unique immune system, capable of producing immune cells. Thanks to the cervical canal, the female reproductive system can be completely sterile.

Providing conception

Many patients wonder why the cervical canal is enlarged. It is very important to find out if this is the norm or pathology in order to understand the state of your health.

As it is known, for conception to occur, it is very important that the spermatozoon travels a long way from the vagina through the cervical canal. We have already said that in this place a large amount of mucus is produced, which performs a protective function.

However, on certain days of the cycle (before the onset of ovulation), the mucus begins to thin, and as a result, a more alkaline environment occurs. In order for the sperm to pass to the egg, it is very important that the cervical canal is slightly enlarged. This is what contributes to the onset of conception. Therefore, if the couple decided to have a child, it is very important to choose the most favorable period for this. By the way, the mucus produced by the canal is able to sift out weak and non-viable sperm, so only the strongest and healthiest will move towards their goal.

How to understand that the cervical canal is expanded

The reasons for this phenomenon may be several. In a normally developed woman who has not given birth, the maximum width of the canal is usually up to eight millimeters. However, if this indicator increases, this may indicate the presence of pathology. If a woman has a pregnancy, the cervical canal closes. But the expansion is usually observed in such cases:

  • Internal pharynx expanded to two millimeters. In this case, the cervical canal is expanded in the middle third.

  • There may also be a slit-like expansion in the upper third, which is usually accompanied by the active work of the glands.
  • Extensions include the case when the cervical canal is extended along the entire length. At the same time softening of the uterus and shortening of its cervix are also observed.
  • There is also a condition in which the cervical canal is funnel-widened and the internal pharynx is closed.

What is the danger

If the cervical canal is enlarged and the other indicators are normal, then usually it does not pose a mortal threat to the fair sex. However, most often this phenomenon suggests that in the female reproductive system there are some pathological processes that require diagnosis and selection of the optimal method of treatment.

If the cervical canal expands during pregnancy, this can be a serious danger. Consider what the possible risks are:

  • If the woman is in early pregnancy, then there is simply a huge risk of spontaneous abortion. When conducting an ultrasound examination is usually diagnosed as such a phenomenon as hypertonicity of the uterus.
  • There is such a phenomenon as cervical insufficiency, which can be diagnosed starting from the second trimester of pregnancy. Typically, this phenomenon leads to its interruption, since the child can be born ahead of time.

That is why if a pregnant woman was diagnosed with such a phenomenon as dilation of the cervical canal, it is very important to conduct various diagnostic measures in time and urgently prescribe the necessary treatment to the patient.

Conducting diagnostic studies

Usually, during the initial gynecological examination, changes can be seen only if the external pharynx is in an expanded condition. But for more accurate results, a diagnostic procedure is usually carried out, such as an ultrasound scan. The process of measuring the cervix is ​​called cervicometry. Maximum results can be achieved by performing MRI of the pelvic organs. Usually such a procedure is carried out if the patient has already found any pathological processes in the reproductive system.

It is also very important to take a smear. With it, you can determine the presence of inflammatory processes, as well as sexually transmitted diseases.

Treatment methods

Depending on why the cervical canal is enlarged, a treatment method will be selected. If polyps or tumor-like lesions were found in it, in this case, doctors usually resort to surgical intervention. In this case, the fair sex has the opportunity to preserve the functions of the reproductive system. However, if the formation has acquired a malignant nature, then in this case a radical intervention should be carried out, which is usually accompanied by the use of radiation and chemotherapy.

In the presence of endocervical cysts, as well as cervicitis, doctors usually prescribe conservative therapies, which include antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs (Azithromycin, Cefixime, Erythromycin, Doxycycline). If a woman has been diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases, then in this case she should be registered. При этом также пройти проверку, и при необходимости начать лечение должен и ее половой партнер.

If a woman has been diagnosed with adenomyosis, then in this case a complex conservative treatment is prescribed, in which anti-inflammatory and hormonal medications are used (Marvelon, Duphaston, Anteovin, Dismenorm). In some cases, doctors also recommend that the representatives of the weaker sex undergo additional rehabilitation therapy, which includes the use of vitamin supplements, absorbable drugs, as well as physical therapy. If conservative methods of treatment do not give the proper result, then in this case, the doctors make a decision about the surgical intervention.

If the expansion of the cervical canal was detected during the course of pregnancy, then the woman should be urgently sent for hospitalization, since in this case there is a high risk of miscarriage or premature birth. In this case, the patient is prescribed hormonal medications, antispasmodics, vitamins, and everything possible is done to prevent placental insufficiency. If necessary, the following protective measures are also taken:

  • The imposition of special stitches on the cervix, which are usually removed in the thirty-eighth week of pregnancy,
  • Sometimes a pessary is installed. This procedure is a dressing on the cervix of a special latex ring, which does not allow it to open. Most often, this method is used by itself, and sometimes in combination with suturing.

Every woman should monitor the state of her health, and the health of the reproductive system as well. It is very important to regularly visit a gynecologist for the implementation of a routine examination. Usually, the expansion of the cervical canal does not occur by itself (unless, of course, this does not concern the natural process of childbirth). Most often it signals that infectious and inflammatory processes are present in the female reproductive system, as well as benign or malignant tumors. Therefore, do not ignore visits to the gynecologist, especially for women during pregnancy. Timely provided diagnostic and therapeutic measures can protect your health, as well as the life of your future baby.

Take care of your health right now. This will help you eliminate further risks and hazards. Take care of yourself.

How and why does the permeability of the cervical canal change in menopause?

Menopause is a certain time period in which a woman undergoes hormonal changes. They affect the work of all body systems.

Specialists affected reproductive function implementers - the cervical canal and cervix, uterus and ovaries.

In the early stages of menopause, there is a decrease in the production of estrogen in the body.

This hormone maintains good condition of the bones and skin, stimulates the function of the gonads, and causes active secretion of vaginal mucus in the cervical canal.

When the amount of estrogen decreases, genital regression occurs: they stop functioning and decrease in size over time.

Almost all women in postmenopausal women face stenosis of the cervical canal.

The gap connecting the uterus to the vagina and lining the inside of the cervix becomes shorter and narrower. The body understands that the transport function is no longer required and "turns off" it.

Natural causes of cervical stenosis

The cause of the stricture of the cervical canal and the narrowing of the uterus is a change in hormonal levels. With a natural decrease in estrogen produced, follicle-stimulating hormone is increased.

At the same time, the sensitivity of receptors located on the components of the reproductive system in relation to FSH decreases.

Under the influence of hormonal changes, the epithelium ceases to function and shrinks. During a gynecological examination, the doctor finds a narrow cervical canal in the patient, but often does not give this significant value.

Pathological causes of atresia

If postresopia atresia of the cervical canal is normal, cervical stenosis with active menstrual function (or the first year of menopause) appears for pathological reasons:

Postmenopausal cervical stenosis can also have a pathological origin. In this case, it is important to timely treatment. Pre-performed diagnosis based on the clinical picture.

Signs of cervical stenosis

Congestion of the cervical canal in postmenopausal women has no clinical manifestations, if we are not talking about the pathological process.

Usually this condition is detected suddenly when the patient visits the gynecologist and the doctor is about to take a cervical smear for cytology.

If the causes of cervical stenosis are pathological, then there are such signs:

  • pain in the lower abdomen,
  • hyperthermia,
  • symptoms of intoxication.

When performing an ultrasound, the sonologist detects fluid in the uterus or abdomen, and the endometrium has a thickness greater than normal.

What is cervical canal dilation?

Bougienage of the cervical canal is one of the methods to eliminate obstruction of the cervix. It is performed when other methods of treatment have not brought the desired result.

Before restoring the patency of the cervical canal, it is necessary to undergo an examination, including:

  • consultation of the gynecologist,
  • colposcopy
  • Ultrasound,
  • blood test (general, biochemistry, coagulability, group and rhesus),
  • vaginal smear,
  • diagnosis of TORCH infections,

How is the intervention?

The expansion of the cervical canal, the cause of the fusion of which is a tumor or a polyp, is performed with the obligatory removal of the tumor.

The biological tissue is subsequently sent for histological examination, the result of which tells about the nature of the tumor.

Surgical treatment of cervical atresia is carried out in a hospital, but usually does not require hospitalization. The operation is performed under general anesthesia.

In the process of expansion nozzles of different diameters are used.

First, the bougie is worn small, then more, and so on. The duration of the operation does not exceed half an hour.

After dilution of the cervix, the mucous membrane of the cervical canal may slightly bleed.

Within 2 hours the patient is under the supervision of medical personnel. As soon as the state of health after anesthesia is normalized, the woman can go home.

If a narrowing of the cervical canal is detected, rather than complete adhesion, then dilation is performed under local anesthesia.

After the operation, for a 2-week period, one should lead a sparing lifestyle: exclude sexual contacts, thermal procedures and physical exertion.

After 14 days, a control examination is carried out. With a favorable course of the recovery period, the external pharynx of the woman who has given birth has a slit-like shape, and that of the non-giving birth has a round shape.

Consequences and possible complications of bougaining

When performing bougienage in a specialized medical institution by experienced gynecologists, complications usually do not occur.

In Moscow and other Russian cities, private clinics offering the procedure of laser recanalization of the cervical canal are widespread.

This technique has fewer negative effects, it is less traumatic and almost eliminates the likelihood of relapse.

Possible complications of bougienage include:

  • uterine bleeding,
  • perforation of the cervix or uterine wall,
  • inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal or the reproductive organ,
  • recurrence of cervical canal spasm.

Treatment with hormonal drugs

Due to the fact that atresia of the cervical canal in postmenopausal women is a consequence of a change in the hormonal background and the cessation of estrogen production, it is possible to conduct conservative treatment.

The effectiveness of this technique depends on several conditions:

  • what time period does a woman have no menstruation,
  • how narrow is the passage in the cervix,
  • how old is the patient
  • Are there any associated diseases of the pelvic organs?

For medical treatment, hormone preparations are prescribed that contain the missing estrogen: Ovestin, Estrokad, Estriol.

As an additional means, vaginal suppositories are used to restore the integrity and elasticity of epithelial tissue, as well as vitamins and complexes that enhance immunity.

Is it possible to prevent clogging of access to the uterus?

It is impossible to predict the fusion of the cervical opening. The transition from the reproductive period to menopausal itself is a factor suggesting a change in the state of the pelvic organs.

From this point on, a woman should regularly visit a gynecologist (at least 2 times a year) and have a smear for cytology.

In the process of manual examination, the doctor may detect a narrowing of the cervical opening and suggest a possible atresia in the future.

You can avoid this state if you follow simple recommendations during your lifetime:

  • avoid promiscuous sexual intercourse without the use of barrier contraceptives, since they increase the risk of sexually transmitted diseases,
  • time to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases, as they increase the likelihood of adhesions,
  • use contraceptives to prevent abortion leading to injuries of the cervical canal,
  • reduce the frequency of interventions in the uterine cavity that require dilation of the cervix,
  • avoid stress that exacerbates the menopause,
  • follow the rules of personal hygiene.

If during menopause there is dryness in the vagina, a burning sensation, strange discharges or other complaints appear, then you should immediately contact a gynecologist.

After the examination, the doctor will prescribe a symptomatic treatment that will help stop the union in time.

Hormonal replacement agents are taken by women all over the world, which helps them not only prevent closure of the uterus, but also improve their well-being by getting rid of the symptoms of menopause.

What is a cervical dilatation?

This is a surgical operation carried out as a result of a narrowing or complete atresia (fusion) of the cervical canal. Pathology occurs in women of reproductive age for various reasons.

But often the narrowing or fusion of the cervical canal occurs due to scraping or age-related changes. These actions have a negative effect on the condition of the cervix.

The permeability of the cervical canal is restored with the help of a simple surgical operation. It is carried out with the help of a special tool - the bougie (hence the name of the procedure).

Bougienage is the only way to treat serious pathologies that limit a woman’s ability to have children. This type of intervention is also performed for menopausal women.

Individual patients describe this procedure as terrible. This is not the case because the woman does not feel pain during the operation of expanding the cervical canal due to the action of anesthesia. Medical centers use equipment that reduces the patient's time in hospital.

Women who do not know what cervical dilatation is, sometimes refuse to do the intervention. In this way, they put themselves at risk, because in this case, the development of inflammatory and oncological pathologies is possible. In addition, the fusion of the cervical canal can lead to infertility.

Cervical cervical dilatation is necessary for cervical stenosis

Indications and features of the procedure

Bougienage is prescribed for the following conditions:

  • infectious pathologies (herpes, syphilis, chlamydial lesion, toxoplasmosis),
  • medication for a long time
  • effects on the body of ionizing radiation
  • curettage treatment of the uterus,
  • cauterization of uterine epithelial layers using electrocoagulation or the use of silver nitrate,
  • cancer of the cervix and body of the uterus,
  • abortion,
  • endometritis or endocervicitis,
  • stenosis or atresia of the cervix,
  • hypertrophic scarring.

The procedure is carried out in a hospital with general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is not prescribed, because it is ineffective. The type of anesthesia is determined by the doctor after a thorough examination of the patient's body.

The operation implies that a special instrument will be inserted into the cervical canal - the bougie. Without anesthesia, the patient would be sick, because it causes trauma to mucous membranes. Bougies increase gradually, otherwise a rupture of the neck is likely.

Trauma to the tissue always leads to re-fusion of the cervical canal. Correctly performed dilation of the cervical canal ensures that there are no complications.

Bougienage is not done if it has developed as a result of a malignant process. In this case, more radical operations are needed. Bougienage is prohibited if the duration of false amenorrhea in a woman is more than six months. In this case, plastic recanalization of the cervix is ​​made.

It is necessary to pass tests for 1-2 weeks before surgery.

Preparation for surgery and methods of conducting

In order for the operation to go well, the patient should be given a series of preparatory tests. They are needed not only to confirm the diagnosis, but also to check the general state of health. The complex of diagnostic measures includes:

  • general blood examination
  • biochemical research
  • test for determining the presence of genital infections in the body,
  • test for HIV and AIDS, syphilis and the presence in the body of pathogens of hepatitis B, C,
  • blood coagulation test (allows you to determine the risk of severe bleeding during and after surgery),
  • colposcopy
  • vaginal and cervical smear microscopy,
  • electrocardiogram (it should be done to detect the likely risk of heart problems),
  • fluorography,
  • sounding
  • vaginal bakposiv,
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

At the request of the woman, an anesthesiologist's consultation can be arranged. Doctors usually prohibit eating and drinking on the day of surgery. The ban is due to the fact that during the use of intravenous anesthesia may cause nausea and vomiting.

The cost of bougie in different clinics may vary significantly. When choosing a clinic, it is worth considering its reputation and the qualifications of doctors.

Cervical canal dilatation technique

Consider how to conduct the dilatation of the cervical canal.

  1. The patient is placed in a gynecological chair. She is given intravenous anesthesia.
  2. The doctor does the treatment of the genitals in order to maintain the maximum degree of sterility and prevent infection.
  3. There is an introduction to the vagina of the medical mirror (it expands access to the cervix).
  4. The smallest bougie is used for primary expansion. After the extension is completed, a second, larger instrument is taken.
  5. The operation is completed when a cervix of the required diameter enters the cervical canal.

The phased introduction of the instrument is designed to reduce the likelihood of rupture during surgery. The doctor chooses the most gentle mode.

After the operation, the woman usually goes home. But sometimes the doctor may recommend to stay in the hospital for at least a day. This will help reduce the likelihood of bleeding.

Outpatient treatment is permissible only in the absence of pathology of the heart and blood vessels in women. Local anesthesia in some cases can be carried out using local anesthesia.

The postoperative period and the healing of the cervix

After normalization of the cervix, the patient can return to normal life after about 2 weeks. During this time, all pain passes completely.

If within 14 days the pain increases, then an urgent need to visit a doctor. A woman may experience a relapse of infection. For this purpose, it is possible to install an alloplastic canal.

During postoperative treatment, the patient should take anti-inflammatory drugs and suppositories to speed up the healing process. They are prescribed only by a gynecologist, focusing on the state of health of the woman and the presence of individual intolerance to certain drugs.

It is necessary to urgently consult a doctor if these symptoms appear:

  • discharge of blood and mucus from the genitals
  • persistent pain in the lower abdomen,
  • fever.

In order to prevent the development of negative effects of the bougienage of the cervical canal, the patient should take antibacterial drugs.

The choice of anti-inflammatory drugs is carried out by the attending gynecologist.

Depending on the severity of the clinical case, tablets or injectable forms are used. To prevent the development of thrush need to take antifungal agents (most often they are prescribed in the form of suppositories).

To prevent fusion, the following measures should be taken:

  • timely treat inflammatory processes in the uterus and cervical canal,
  • регулярно проходить медицинские осмотры с целью обнаружения воспалительных патологий и злокачественных новообразований (такие осмотры нужно проводить, начиная с подросткового возраста),
  • abortions are carried out only in the condition of the hospital and only by qualified personnel,
  • do not use without control and need douching, do not make them aggressive solutions,
  • from childhood you need to adhere to the rules of a healthy lifestyle, exercise regularly,
  • do not use chemical contraceptives without control,
  • avoid infection by infectious pathologies,
  • during of pregnancy Do not take drugs that have a toxic effect on the baby.

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